Robert Stephenson, the only son of George Stephenson, was born on 16th October, 1803. The following year the family moved to Killingworth where George became an enginewright at the local colliery. Robert's mother died of consumption at Killingworth in 1806.
Robert went to the local village school at Longbenton. George Stephenson's growing success as a locomotive engineer meant that he could afford to pay for Robert to have a private education. Between 1814 and 1819 Robert attended the Bruce Academy in Newcastle. Robert also became a member of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society.
In 1819 Robert was apprenticed to Nicholas Wood, the manager of Killingworth Colliery. Three years later he joined his father to help him survey the Stockton & Darlington line. The following year Robert attended Edinburgh University where he met another student, George Bidder. The two men became close friends and were to work together on several different railway projects during the next twenty-five years.
In 1823 Robert Stephenson joined with George Stephenson and Edward Pease to form a company to make locomotives. The Robert Stephenson & Company, at Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, became the world's first locomotive builder. To gain further experience, Robert went to South America in 1824 where he worked at gold and silver mines. While in Columbia he met the inventor, Richard Trevithick, and provided the funds that he needed to get back to Britain.
After three years in South America, Stephenson was recalled to England and began work on the Rocket locomotive. Robert's abilities as an engineer was illustrated by the success of the Rocket at the Rainhill Trials in October, 1829. During this period Robert and George Stephenson were kept busy producing locomotives for the Bolton & Leigh Railway and the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. This included locomotives such as the Northumbrian and the Lancashire Witch.
In 1833 Robert Stephenson was appointed chief engineer of the London & Birmingham line. This was the first railway into London and involved solving difficult engineering problems such as the Blisworth Cutting and the Kilsby Tunnel.
The London & Birmingham line was completed in 1838. For the next few years Stephenson was involved in constructing railways all over the world. He also built bridges, including those that crossed the Tyne at Newcastle and the Menai Straits. The Britannia Bridge at Conwy was made up of two huge, rectangular, wrought iron tubes. Stephenson constructed a similar bridge over the St. Lawrence River at Montreal, Canada (1854-59). For many years, this was the longest bridge in the world.
In the 1847 General Election Stephenson was elected as the Conservative MP for Whitby. Stephenson did not take an active role in the House of Commons and usually only contributed to debates on engineering issues.
Stephenson never enjoyed good health and early in 1859 he was advised to retire from business and politics. He took a yachting cruise but when he arrived in Norway his condition deteriorated and he was rushed back to England.
Robert Stephenson died on 12th October, 1859.
Robert Stephenson went to Mr. Bruce's school in Percy Street, Newcastle, in 1815, when he was about twelve years old. His father bought him a donkey, on which he rode into Newcastle and back daily. When Richard went to school he was a shy, unpolished country lad, speaking the broad dialect of the pitman; and the other boys would tease him. As a scholar he was steady and diligent, and his master was accustomed to hold him up to the laggards of the school as an example of good conduct and industry.
It gives rise to feelings of true regret when I reflect on your situation; but yet a consolation springs up when I consider your preserving spirit will for ever bear you up in the arms of triumph, instances of which I have witnessed of too forcible a character to be easily effaced from my memory.
He was habitually careless of his health, and perhaps he indulged in narcotics to a prejudicial extent. Hence he often became ill. When Mr. Sopwith succeeded in persuading Mr. Stephenson to limit his indulgence in cigars and stimulants, the consequence was that by the end of the voyage he felt himself, as he said, "quite a new man". But he was of a facile, social disposition and the old associations proved too strong for him.
4) F. R. Condor, an engineer on the London & Birmingham Railway, wrote about Robert Stephenson after his death in 1859.
Robert Stephenson, in those days, almost lived on the line. In the earlier days he charmed all who came in contact with him. Kind and considerate to his subordinates, he was not without occasional outbursts of fierce northern passion. During the whole construction of the London and Brighton line, his anxiety was so great as to lead him to very frequent recourse to the fatal aid of calomel. There can be little doubt that his early and lamented death was hastened by this ill-considered devotion to the service of his employers, and the establishment of his own fame.
Stephenson, Robert (1803). English railway engineer. The son of the pioneering railway-builder and designer of locomotives, George Stephenson (1781), Robert was mostly responsible for the construction of the main lines from London to Birmingham (1833𠄸), in the North-East of England, and elsewhere. His greatest works were bridges, e.g. spanning the Tyne at Newcastle and the Tweed at Berwick (1846𠄹), but his master-piece was the Britannia Bridge (1845), a tubular-girder structure carrying the Chester to Holyhead line over the Menai Straits. In the detailed design of the last Stephenson was assisted by Fairbairn and others. He also designed the tubular bridge at Conway, Wales (1845). His Victoria Bridge over the St Lawrence, Montrບl (1854𠄹), was for some time the longest bridge in the world.
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004)
Skempton et al. (eds.) (2002)
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Stevenson was the only son of Thomas Stevenson, a prosperous civil engineer, and his wife, Margaret Isabella Balfour. His poor health made regular schooling difficult, but he attended Edinburgh Academy and other schools before, at age 17, entering Edinburgh University, where he was expected to prepare himself for the family profession of lighthouse engineering. But Stevenson had no desire to be an engineer, and he eventually agreed with his father, as a compromise, to prepare instead for the Scottish bar.
He had shown a desire to write early in life, and once in his teens he had deliberately set out to learn the writer’s craft by imitating a great variety of models in prose and verse. His youthful enthusiasm for the Covenanters (i.e., those Scotsmen who had banded together to defend their version of Presbyterianism in the 17th century) led to his writing The Pentland Rising, his first printed work. During his years at the university he rebelled against his parents’ religion and set himself up as a liberal bohemian who abhorred the alleged cruelties and hypocrisies of bourgeois respectability.
In 1873, in the midst of painful differences with his father, he visited a married cousin in Suffolk, England, where he met Sidney Colvin, the English scholar, who became a lifelong friend, and Fanny Sitwell (who later married Colvin). Sitwell, an older woman of charm and talent, drew the young man out and won his confidence. Soon Stevenson was deeply in love, and on his return to Edinburgh he wrote her a series of letters in which he played the part first of lover, then of worshipper, then of son. One of the several names by which Stevenson addressed her in these letters was “Claire,” a fact that many years after his death was to give rise to the erroneous notion that Stevenson had had an affair with a humbly born Edinburgh girl of that name. Eventually the passion turned into a lasting friendship.
Later in 1873 Stevenson suffered severe respiratory illness and was sent to the French Riviera, where Colvin later joined him. He returned home the following spring. In July 1875 he was called to the Scottish bar, but he never practiced. Stevenson was frequently abroad, most often in France. Two of his journeys produced An Inland Voyage (1878) and Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (1879). His career as a writer developed slowly. His essay “Roads” appeared in the Portfolio in 1873, and in 1874 “Ordered South” appeared in Macmillan’s Magazine, a review of Lord Lytton’s Fables in Song appeared in the Fortnightly, and his first contribution (on Victor Hugo) appeared in The Cornhill Magazine, then edited by Leslie Stephen, a critic and biographer. It was these early essays, carefully wrought, quizzically meditative in tone, and unusual in sensibility, that first drew attention to Stevenson as a writer.
Stephen brought Stevenson into contact with Edmund Gosse, the poet and critic, who became a good friend. Later, when in Edinburgh, Stephen introduced Stevenson to the writer W.E. Henley. The two became warm friends and were to remain so until 1888, when a letter from Henley to Stevenson containing a deliberately implied accusation of dishonesty against the latter’s wife precipitated a quarrel that Henley, jealous and embittered, perpetuated after his friend’s death in a venomous review of a biography of Stevenson.
In 1876 Stevenson met Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne, an American lady separated from her husband, and the two fell in love. Stevenson’s parents’ horror at their son’s involvement with a married woman subsided somewhat when she returned to California in 1878, but it revived with greater force when Stevenson decided to join her in August 1879. Stevenson reached California ill and penniless (the record of his arduous journey appeared later in The Amateur Emigrant, 1895, and Across the Plains, 1892). His adventures, which included coming very near death and eking out a precarious living in Monterey and San Francisco, culminated in marriage to Fanny Osbourne (who was by then divorced from her first husband) early in 1880. About the same time a telegram from his relenting father offered much-needed financial support, and, after a honeymoon by an abandoned silver mine (recorded in The Silverado Squatters, 1883), the couple sailed for Scotland to achieve reconciliation with the Thomas Stevensons.
The Writer Emerges
In 1878, Stevenson saw the publication of his first volume of work, An Inland Voyage the book provides an account of his trip from Antwerp to northern France, which he made in a canoe via the river Oise. A companion work, Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879), continues in the introspective vein of Inland Voyage and also focuses on the voice and character of the narrator, beyond simply telling a tale.
Also from this period are the humorous essays of Virginibus Puerisque and Other Papers (1881), which were originally published from 1876 to 1879 in various magazines, and Stevenson&aposs first book of short fiction, New Arabian Nights (1882). The stories marked the United Kingdom&aposs emergence into the realm of the short story, which had previously been dominated by Russians, Americans and the French. These stories also marked the beginning of Stevenson&aposs adventure fiction, which would come to be his calling card.
A turning point in Stevenson&aposs personal life came during this period, when he met the woman who would become his wife, Fanny Osbourne, in September 1876. She was a 36-year-old American who was married (although separated) and had two children. Stevenson and Osbourne began to see each other romantically while she remained in France. In 1878, she divorced her husband, and Stevenson set out to meet her in California (the account of his voyage would later be captured in The Amateur Emigrant). The two married in 1880, and remained together until Stevenson&aposs death in 1894.
After they were married, the Stevensons took a three-week honeymoon at an abandoned silver mine in Napa Valley, California, and it was from this trip that The Silverado Squatters (1883) emerged. Also appearing in the early 1880s were Stevenson&aposs short stories "Thrawn Janet" (1881), "The Treasure of Franchard" (1883) and "Markheim" (1885), the latter two having certain affinities with Treasure Island and Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde (both of which would be published by 1886), respectively.
Until the early 1800’s a highly lucrative business had established itself along the dark and dim Scottish coastline. Some folk had grown rich from the resulting spoil of the wrecked ships that had come to grief on the rocks that lay hidden just beneath waves. Over the centuries, hundreds of ships and thousands of lives had been claimed by the treacherous reefs that surround the shores of Scotland. One man perhaps more than any other, can be credited with bringing an end to this grim trade – his name was Robert Stevenson.
Robert Stevenson was born in Glasgow on 8th June 1772. Robert’s father Alan and his brother Hugh ran a trading company from the city dealing in goods from the West Indies, and it was on a trip to the island of St Kitts that the brothers met their early end, when they contracted and died from a fever.
Without a regular income, Robert’s mother was left to bring up young Robert as best she could. Robert received his early education at a charity school before the family moved to Edinburgh where he was enrolled at the High School. A deeply religious person, it was through her church work that Robert’s mother met, and later married, Thomas Smith. A talented and ingenious mechanic, Thomas had recently been appointed engineer to the newly formed Northern Lighthouse Board.
Throughout his latter teenage years Robert quite literally served his apprenticeship as assistant to his stepfather. Together they worked to supervise and improve the handful of crude coal-fired lighthouses that existed at that time, introducing innovations such as lamps and reflectors.
Lighthouse lantern using reflectors and huge ‘hyperradiant’ lanterns lit by incandescent petroleum vapour, early 1800s
Robert worked hard, and so impressed, that at the tender age of just 19 he was left to supervise the construction of his first lighthouse on the island of Little Cumbrae in the River Clyde. Perhaps recognising his lack of a more formal education, Robert also began to attend lectures in mathematics and science at the Andersonian Institute (now University of Strathclyde) in Glasgow.
Seasonal by its very nature, Robert successfully combined his practical summer work of constructing lighthouses in the Orkney Islands, whilst devoting the winter months to academic study at Edinburgh University.
In 1797 Robert was appointed engineer to the Lighthouse Board and two years later married his stepsister Jean, Thomas Smith’s eldest daughter by an earlier marriage.
One hazard in particular lay off Scotland’s east coast, near Dundee and the entrance to the Firth of Tay. This had claimed thousands of lives, with countless ships wrecked on its treacherous sandstone reef. Legend has it that Bell Rock earned its name from when a 14th century abbot from nearby Arbroath Abbey installed a warning bell on it. What is known however, is that an average of six ships were being wrecked every winter on those rocks and in one storm alone, 70 ships were lost along that stretch of coast.
Robert had proposed the construction of a lighthouse on Bell Rock as early as 1799, however the costs and sheer scale of the project had frightened the other members of the Northern Lighthouse Board. In their eyes Robert was proposing the impossible. It would however take the wrecking of just one more vessel for the Board to reconsider Robert’s plan. It was the loss of the huge 64-gun warship HMS York and all of its 491 crew that changed things!
Although he had never built a lighthouse before, Britain’s most eminent engineer of the day John Rennie was given the job of chief engineer, with Robert as his resident on-site engineer. Together they agreed that John Smeaton’s ground-breaking Eddystone Lighthouse design would act as the model for their design.
With Rennie back in his London offices, it was Robert who was left with the day to day hardships of organising and building the lighthouse. And so on 17th August 1807, Robert and 35 workers set sail for the rock. Work was slow and laborious using simple pickaxes the men could only work for two hours either side of each low tide, and then only during the calmer summer months. In between their shifts they rested on a ship moored a mile away. In the two years that followed they completed three courses of stonework and the mighty lighthouse stood just six feet tall!
The year of 1810 started badly for Robert, losing first his twins and then his youngest daughter to whooping cough. His lighthouse however was nearing completion, and was now attracting many tourists anxious to gaze upon the world’s tallest off-shore lighthouse. The 24 great lanterns that topped the granite stone structure were lit for the first time on 1st February 1811 …one of the Seven Wonders of the Industrial World.
Corsewall Lighthouse, built by Stevenson and now a hotel
In his fifty-year career as engineer to the Northern Lighthouse Board, Robert went on to design and construct more than a dozen more lighthouses around the shores of Scotland and the surrounding islands. Innovating and inventing as he went, his civil engineering skills were always in much demand, including ventures into other areas such as bridges, canals, harbours, railways and roads.
The masterpiece of Robert’s career however will always be the Bell Rock Lighthouse, and whilst many still debate Rennie’s role in the project, the folk at the Northern Lighthouse Board appear clear where the praise should go. On Robert’s death in 1850, the following minute was read out at the Board’s Annual GM:
“The Board, before proceeding to business, desire to record their regret at the death of this zealous, faithful and able officer, to whom is due the honour of conceiving and executing the great work of the Bell Rock Lighthouse …”
The words were of particularly significance as they were said in front of an audience that included Robert’s three sons, Alan, David and Thomas, who would continue this building dynasty for generations to come. The ‘Lighthouse Stevensons’ would go on to light up the coast of Scotland for many more years, saving countless lives as a result.
Missed 24 games while on the 10-day injured list with a mid-back strain…traded to Colorado, along with Minor League outfielder Jameson Hannah, in exchange for right-handed pitchers Jeff Hoffman and Casey Williams (Minor League) on Nov. 25. Made his fourth consecutive Opening Day roster and spent a second consecutive full season on the Reds’ active roster or injured list. Pitched one game (July 25 vs. Detroit) before being placed on the injured list with a mid-back strain…was reinstated on Aug. 24 and made nine more appearances. Retired his first batter in seven of 10 games, while stranding all six inherited runners. Was on Cincinnati’s Wild Card Series roster at Atlanta, but did not pitch.
Spent the entire season on the Reds' roster. In his last 24 apps beginning 7/26 posted an ERA of 1.38 (26ip, 12h, 4er, 7bb, 28k, 3hr, .136baa), dropping his ERA from a season-high 5.35 to its final 3.76. With a minimum of 26 innings pitched and beginning 7/26 through the end of the season, his 1.38 ERA was the best in the National League among relievers, tied for second-best among all Major League relievers (Min's Trevor May, 1.33 & Bos' Brandon Workman, 1.38) and second-best of any pitcher in the National League (StL's Jack Flaherty, 0.92). Beginning 8/3, shut out the opponent in 18 of his last 21 apps (1.35era, 20ip, 3er). From 5/31-6/15 was on the 10-day injured list with a cervical strain. posted ERAs of 3.96 in 21 apps prior to the injury and 3.63 in 36 apps after he came off the IL. 14 times threw more than 1.0 inning, 8 times threw 2.0 innings and on 7/26 vs Col threw a season-high 3.0 innings that tied his career high in relief. 11 times threw on consecutive days. never in his career pitched on 3 straight days. Retired the first batter in 45 of his 57 apps and stranded 11 of 15 inherited runners. ..From 4/2-4/15 retired 17 consecutive batters, a streak snapped by Manny Machado's RBI-double in the sixth inning on 4/18 at SD's Petco Park. In the eighth inning of the 11-inning, 4-3 win on 9/5 vs Phi allowed a leadoff HR to J.T. Realmuto that snapped career-high scoreless streaks of 13 apps (8/3-9/4) and 12.0 innings (7/30-9/4). also in that game recorded the 200th strikeout of his career (Rhys Hoskins).
Was an MiLB.com Organization All-Star. led all Reds minor leaguers in ERA while ranking second in wins and third in strikeouts. ranked among the International League pitching leaders in opponents' BA (1st, .184), ERA (6th), wins (3rd), strikeouts (2nd), walks (4th), WHIP (3rd, 1.16), highest strikeouts per 9 innings ratio (2nd, 10.75) and fewest baserunners per 9 innings ratio (2nd, 10.75). made all 20 of his starts for Louisville before he was promoted to the Reds on 8/8, when he started that afternoon's 8-0 loss vs the Mets. filled that day's spot in the rotation vacated by RHP Anthony DeSclafani, whose previous start was pushed back a day following a weather postponement on 8/3 at Wsh. made 3 starts and 1 relief appearance for the Reds before he was disabled on 8/30 with right shoulder tendinitis. didn't pitch again the rest of the season. made his first 3 apps for the Reds as a starter (0-2, 7.59) and his final appearance of the season in relief in the 9-0 loss on 8/26 at Cubs (1ip, 3h, 3er, 0bb, 1k, 1hr). prior to his promotion on 8/8, in his last 7 starts for the Bats went 6-0, 1.23 (44ip, 6er). finished his stint there with 5 consecutive quality starts, the longest such streak by a Bats pitcher since he did it from 6/26-7/23, 2016. on 7/30 was named International League Pitcher of the Week (2gs, 1-0, 1.29). in the 3-0 win on 7/24/g1 vs Buffalo (7ip, 2h, 2bb, 3k, 87pch) became the first Bats righthander to throw a shutout since RHP Homer Bailey did it on 5/2/2009/g1, also vs Buffalo. was his second career IL Pitcher of the Week Award (7/27-8/2, 2015). on 8/3 at Columbus recorded 13 strikeouts.
Among National League rookies ranked sixth in opponents' batting average (.256), ninth in strikeouts and 10th in ERA. in his second Major League season made 11 starts (5-4, 3.41) and 14 relief apps (0-2-1, 7.43) during 2 stints with the Reds. in his first stint, made all 13 apps in relief (0-2, 8.03). after 6 weeks in Louisville rejoined the Reds on 7/22 and made 11 of his last 12 apps as a starter (12g, 5-4, 3.30). during his second stint with the Reds was disabled with a bruised right shoulder (8/6-8/12). suffered that injury in a start on 8/2 at Pit, when in the sixth inning he dove for a Starling Marte popped up bunt single. came off the disabled list on 8/13. in that afternoon's 7-4 loss at Mil threw 2.0 hitless innings in relief, then beginning 8/19 finished the season with 8 consecutive starts during which he went 5-2, 2.74 with 4 quality starts. overall, after he came off the disabled list on 8/13 finished the season 5-2, 2.62 in the 8 starts and 1 relief appearance. from 8/19-9/5 went 4-0, 2.38 to become the first Reds rookie pitcher to win 4 consecutive starts while allowing 2 runs or fewer in each since Tim Pugh did it in 1992. on 8/25 vs Pit struck out his first 6 batters, a modern club record to begin a game. in that 9-5 win recorded a career-high 11 strikeouts, the second-highest total by a Reds pitcher all season (12, Amir Garrett, 4/19 vs Bal). was 1 of 7 rookies on the Opening Day roster. made his season debut on 4/8 at StL, the final player on the Reds' Opening Day roster to make an appearance. was optioned to Louisville on 5/30, the day after the Reds' 17-2 loss at Tor. entered that game in the third inning with the bases loaded in relief of starter Lisalverto Bonilla and allowed a grand slam to his first batter, Troy Tulowitzki. an inning later allowed a 3-run HR to Justin Smoak. overall allowed 10 hits, 7 runs and 6 earned runs, all career highs. was optioned to Louisville the next day to make room on the roster for RHP Jackson Stephens. in his first 3 apps for Louisville following his 5/30 option, all starts, allowed just 2 hits total (13ip). became the first Bats pitcher to allow 1 hit or fewer in 3 consecutive starts since their affiliation with the Reds began in 2000. on 4/21 and 4/22 vs Cubs pitched consecutive days for the first time in his career. in the 14-2 win on 5/6 vs SF threw only 32 pitches in 3.0 hitless innings to earn his first professional save. was the first 3-inning save by a Reds pitcher since Alfredo Simon pitched the final 3 innings of the 5-1 win vs Mil on 6/16/13. recorded his only career hit during a relief appearance on 5/12 at SF, singled off Cory Gearrin in the 17th inning of that 3-2 loss. retired the first batter in 10 of his 14 relief apps. stranded 4 of his 7 inherited baserunners. converted his only save opportunity. the Reds went 9-16 in games in which he pitched. entered the season rated by Baseball America the fourth-best prospect in the organization and by MLBPipeline.com the 87th-best prospect in baseball in its preseason Top 100 list.
Spent most of the season at Louisville but in his Major League debut made 8 starts in 3 stints with the Reds. was 1 of 12 Reds players and 10 pitchers to make his Major League debut and 1 of a club-record 32 pitchers overall. Louisville opposing batters hit just .228, fifth-best in the International League. on 3/18 was optioned to Louisville but as the club's final spring training roster move was promoted on Opening Day, when RHP Homer Bailey was disabled. in the 10-6 win on 4/7 vs Phi became the first Reds starting pitcher to win his Major League debut since RHP Sam LeCure on 5/28/10 vs Hou. his first career strikeout victim was Obudel Herrera. after the game was optioned to Louisville. returned to Cin on 4/19, when scheduled starter Alfredo Simon was scratched with right biceps tendinitis, and earned the 4-3 win vs Col. became the first Reds pitcher to throw 7.0 innings in an appearance. became the first Reds pitcher to win his first 2 Major League starts since Larry Luebbers did it in 1993. didn't start again for the Reds until 9/5, when he suffered the 5-0 loss vs NYM. returned to Louisville following his second start on 4/19 and spent the rest of the season with the Bats until he was promoted again on 9/2. made 6 of his 8 starts in September (0-3, 7.56). following the season was rated by MLB.com the fifth-best prospect in the organization.
In 25 starts at Class AA Pensacola and Class AAA Louisville combined to finish 8-11, 3.83 with 1 complete game. led the organization in strikeouts (140). was the International League's Pitcher of the Week for 7/27-8/2 (2gs, 1-0, 0.64, 14ip, 6h, 1er, 3bb, 15k). from 8/16-8/26 was on Louisville's disabled list with a strained right forearm. entered the season rated the best prospect in the organization, and his fastball and curveball both were rated the best of any Reds minor leaguer. following the season was rated by managers the best pitching prospect in the International League. was rated by Baseball America the 11th-best prospect in the IL and 12th-best prospect in the Southern League. on 11/19 was added to the 40-man roster.
In just his third professional season made all 27 apps at Pensacola in his first extended action at Class AA. was a Southern League All-Star. led the SL in walks and strikeouts, tied for the league lead in home runs allowed and led starting pitchers by averaging 8.82 strikeouts per 9 innings. opponents hit just .224, tied for the best mark in the league. established a franchise record for strikeouts with 140 (136.2ip), third-most among all Reds farmhands. in the Sirius XM All-Star Futures Game in Minneapolis threw a scoreless eighth inning in the U.S. team's 3-2 win (1ip, 1h, 1k). following the season was rated by Baseball America the best pitching prospect and fourth-best prospect overall in the Southern League and the pitcher with the best fastball in the SL. entered the season rated the best prospect in the organization. attended his first Major League spring training camp in just his third professional season.
Was the organization's Minor League Pitcher of the Year, a Midwest League All-Star and the Reds' Minor League Pitcher of the Month for May. in 22 starts at Class A Dayton and Bakersfield and Class AA Pensacola went 7-7, 2.99. ranked among the organization's minor league leaders in ERA (2nd) and strikeouts (136, 3rd). in 6 starts in May went 5-0, 1.96 (36.2ip, 46k). was scheduled to start the Midwest League All-Star Game but was scratched with a hamstring injury. scoreboard speed guns often clocked his fastball at 100 miles per hour. on 5/30 vs South Bend retired the first 17 batters before allowing an infield single with 2 outs in the sixth inning. Baseball America ranked both his fastball and curveball the best in the organization. in the Midwest League, was rated the best pitching prospect and pitcher with the best fastball. following the season was ranked the Reds' second-best player under age 25 (LHP Tony Cingrani, 1st).
History of the Vulcan Foundry
1837 One of the first locomotives to run in Russia, a 2-2-2 type, was supplied for the St Petersburg Pavlosk Line. Two 0-4-2 goods engines were delivered to Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn of Austria. LElephant was supplied for the Belgian Railways. Four single drivers were delivered to Germany for the Berlin and Potsdam Railway. London and Greenwich Railway received its first locomotive from Vulcan Works. Three seven-foot gauge locomotives named Vulcan, Aelas and Bachus were delivered to the Great Western Railway. 1846 The earliest side tank engines for any railway were built and delivered to Ireland for the Waterford and Kilkenny Railway. 1847 Vulcan Foundry took over its subsidiary firm the Bank Quay Foundry of Warrington. 1851 Hornsbys portable steam engine took first prize at the Great Exhibition held at Crystal Palace. 1852
The first iron sea going vessel Tayleur, a tea clipper, was built at the Bank Quay Foundry.
Regrettably, the ship was wrecked in heavy storms in the Irish Sea on her maiden voyage to Australia and of the 652 people on board, 380 lost their lives
Vulcan Foundry exported eight 2-4-0 passenger locomotives to India for the Great Indian Peninsular railway. These engines operated the first public railway in India from Bombay to Thana. Between 1852 and 1952 Vulcan supplied nearly 2750 locomotives for service in India, an average of more than one a fortnight for 100 years. 1857 Joseph Ruston went into partnership with Burton & Proctor, a Lincoln firm of millwrights and smiths, to form a new company entitled Ruston, Burton & Proctor. 1860 Despite the tragic wrecking of the Iron Clipper Tayleur the Bank Quay foundry continued to build more tea clippers. In addition to its shipbuilding work the foundry also fabricated much of the ironwork that was used in the construction of the Conway Bridge and the Britannia Tubular Bridge over the Menai Straights, between Anglesea and North Wales. The Bank Quay Foundry was not to prove a successful investment, however, and closed in about 1860. 1862 Single driver express passenger locomotives were supplied to the South Eastern Railway. The 87.5 mile run took only one hour fifty five minutes. 1864 A limited liability company was formed with Mr W F Gooch as General Manager. 1866 Ten broad gauge saddle tank engines were built for the Bristol and Exeter Railway. Their tank capacity was 530 gallons plus an additional 740 gallon tank located below the footplate. 1871 Vulcan Foundry supplied Japan with their first locomotive, a side tank type with 4ft 3in coupled wheels. 1872/3 Farlie Patent double locomotives were built and supplied to New Zealand, North America, Mexico, Portugal, Peru and Queensland. 1884 Vulcan produced its one-thousandth locomotive in 1884 this was a 2-6-0 tender engine of 3?-6″ (1.1m) gauge produced for the New Zealand Government 1887 Ruston Steam Navies helped to build the Manchester Ship Canal. 1888 The first ten wheeled tank engines with inside cylinders were built at the Vulcan for the Taff Valley Railway. 1890 Five passenger tank engines were supplied to Rhymney Railway. These were the only engines in the country with saddle tanks combining the features of the 2-4-2 wheel arrangement with double frames to all wheels except the trailing pair. By the end of 1890 the work force had grown to 555 men. 1894 Ruston, Burton & Proctor produced their first commercial oil engine. 1894/6 Twenty-four 2-6-0 tender engines were supplied to the Indian Midland Railway. Extended taper form smoke boxes gave them a novel appearance.
1904 The Vulcan design for a 4 cylinder Atlantic type balanced compound engine was accepted by the Great Northern Railway. Features included the Vulcan patent starting valve and reversing gear.
1914 The three thousandth locomotive was completed – a broad gauge 2-6-2 type for Great Indian Peninsular Railway.
1914/8 Vulcan war production included shells, gun mountings and Paravanes (mine sweeping devices). Ruston Burton & Proctor built almost 3000 single seat light aircraft at Lincoln. Between 1916-18 Rustons built about 500 Caterpillar tractors for hauling guns.
1918 Ruston acquired the firm of Richard Hornsby & Sons.
1922/3 Twenty 4-8-0 type locomotives were built for the metre gauge Uganda Railway in the Kenya Colony. Fifteen were designed for oil burning the remainder for coal.
1929 The first non-steam locomotive was built at Vulcan – an electric locomotive for India.
1930 Front page news when Vulcan, pioneers in transporting locomotives by road, despatched their first engine from the works by road in January.
1932 Design work commenced on the first diesel locomotive to be built at Vulcan Foundry.
1933 Vulcan Foundry entered into an agreement with A/S Frichs of Aarhus, Denmark for the building of diesel locomotives. The English Electric Company Limited supplied the first 6K engines to be used in rail traction. These were for diesel electric shunt locomotives.
1934/5 One hundred class 5 engines were delivered to London Midland and Scottish – an indication of the tendency to develop a first class mixed traffic loco capable of hauling any train.
1935 The largest locomotive (in overall dimensions) built to date at Vulcan. Twenty-four 4-8-4 locomotives were built for the Chinese National Railways. The overall length of engine and tender was 93ft 2.1/2ins. Two hundred and fifty light tanks were built to War Office specifications (subsequently to see service in the Second World War in Flanders and North Africa).
1936 Vulcan were invited to design and develop an entirely new tank.
1937 The locomotive business of Hawthorn Leslie merged with Robert Stephenson and Company, under the name of Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns Limited.
1938 Pilot models of the Waltzing Matilda tank were ready for trials.
1940 Matildas in action on the Western Front (and later in North Africa, Russia and the Pacific). The Companys agreement with A/S Frichs ended (due to the hostilities). A new agreement signed with the Dury Car Company Limited, for the manufacture of diesel mechanical locomotives. Ruston & Hornsby Limited took over Davey Paxman & Co (Colchester) Limited.
1941 King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visited Vulcan Foundry.
1943/5 Over five hundred 2-8-0 Austerity type steam locomotives were built for use by the War Department.
1944 Vulcan Foundry acquired Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns Limited. In 1944 the workforce reached its peak of 4,128 employees.
Total contributions by Vulcan to the war effort in terms of military equipment:-
250 Mk V and Mk I light tanks,
600 Matilda tanks,
1700 machine gun mounts,
10,000 major torpedo parts,
40,000 smaller torpedo details.
1946 Vulcan commenced building mechanical parts for electric and diesel electric locomotives working in conjunction the English Electric Company Limited. One hundred and twenty 2-8-0 Liberation locomotives were built for the war-ravaged countries, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland and Luxembourg.
1949 Diesel electric and electric locomotives produced in co-operation with the English Electric Company Limited in addition to the steam locomotives being built at the time. The first main line diesel electric locomotive to operate in Egypt was built at Vulcan Foundry and was fitted with an English Electric 16SVT engine.
1954 The last order for steam locomotives receive, three 2-6-2 wood burning locomotives for the North Borneo Railways.
1955 Vulcan Foundry together with its associate company, Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn Limited of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, became full members of the English Electric Group of Companies. English Electric diesel engines were built at Vulcan Foundry for the first time.
1956 The 6,204th steam locomotive was built at Vulcan Foundry, a 4-8-4 (class 31) locomotive for East African Railways – the last big main line steam order for Vulcan, forty six were built.
1957 An order for 22 Deltic locomotives was placed by British Rail each being powered with two 18 cylinder Napier Deltic engines. The first diesel electric locomotive for the railway modernisation scheme was handed over to British Rail.
1962 Vulcan Foundry became the Vulcan Works of English Electric Company Limited. The variety of work was increased to include diesel engines for traction, marine and industrial applications.
1964 By May of this year 1173 diesel and electric locomotives had been despatched from the works.
1965 A Vulcan built 12 cylinder CSVT engine became the two thousandth English Electric diesel engine to be delivered to British Rail. This was installed in a Vulcan built standard type 3 diesel electric locomotive.
1966 Ruston & Hornsby Limited and the English Electric Company Limited merged and formed English Electric Diesels Limited.
1968 The English Electric Company Limited became part of the GEC Group of Companies.
1970 Continuous locomotive production at Vulcan Foundry came to an end with the last main line locomotive to be supplied to Ghana Railways and Ports. Ruston Paxman Diesel Limited was formed as a management company of English Electric Diesels Limited with headquarters at Vulcan Works.
1972 English Electric Diesels Limited changed its title to GEC Diesels Limited.
1975 Ruston Diesels Limited became a separate company within GEC Diesels Limited.
1984 Ruston success was rewarded with the presentation of the Queens Award for Export Achievements
1989 The engineering Companies of GEC and Alcatel Alsthom formed GEC ALSTHOM
1990 Four Ruston 16RK270 engines were the power behind Hoverspeed Great Britain winning the Hales Trophy (Blue Riband). The vessel was the first large passenger/car high-speed wave piercing fast ferry.
1998 Three major contracts for the supply of diesel engines for rail traction saw the revival of Rustons involvement with railways. Ruston success was rewarded with the presentation of the Queens Award for Export Achievements. GEC ALSTHOM floated on the Stock Exchanges as ALSTOM, Ruston and its sister companies became part of ALSTOM Engines Ltd. Catlink V, a larger version of Hoverspeed Great Britain and powered by 4 Ruston 20RK270 engines awarded the Hales Trophy 2000 ALSTOM Engines Limited was acquired by MAN B&W Diesel AG and Ruston and its sister Companies became part of MAN B&W Diesel Ltd. Ruston introduces its new RK280 range of engines. 2001 On the 17th May 2001 the announcement was made to the employees at the Vulcan Works that, by the end of the year 2002, the site would be closed and the business transferred to the MAN B&W Diesel Ltd, Mirrlees Blackstone site at Stockport in Cheshire, England.
The History of Vulcan Works from 1830 to 2002 , Prepared by Malcolm Siberry,
EXPLORE THE DESIGNS:
The now world-famous Rocket was entered by Henry Booth, treasurer of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and George Stephenson, the line's engineer. Designed by George's son Robert, it was built at his company works at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
John Braithwaite and John Ericsson designed and built Novelty in London—a considerable drawback, as there were no railways in the city in 1829 and so the engineers couldn't test it before the trials. It was very much a road-going steam coach put onto railway wheels.
Designed by Timothy Hackworth, Superintendent of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, Sans Pareil was a robust and workmanlike locomotive. Hackworth was hampered by a lack of funds and inadequate facilities at Shildon, where he built Sans Pareil, having to design and build the locomotive at his own (limited) expense while also dispatching his duties as Superintendent of the Stockton & Darlington Railway.
Perseverance was an adaptation of an engine for a road-going steam coach designed by Timothy Burstall of Edinburgh. It was dropped while being unloaded at Rainhill and after repair performed only a few demonstration runs—it was clearly underpowered, and Burstall withdrew from the trials.
Cycloped, owned by Thomas Brandreth, was powered by a horse walking on a drive belt. It was withdrawn from the competition after the horse fell through the belt after reaching a speed of only five miles per hour.
One of the great Railway Engineers
1803 to 1859
Robert Stephenson was born on the 16th October 1803, the only son of the famous railway and locomotive engineer George Stephenson. After completing a private education in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Stephenson served an apprenticeship and went on to study at the University of Edinburgh. He spent three years as a mining engineer in Colombia, returning to Britain in 1827 to continue working alongside his father.
It is commonly taken that many of the achievements accredited to George Stephenson were actually a product of the father-son partnership. This family partnership was instrumental in the early period of railway history. Not only did they pioneer the Rocket – arguably the most famous locomotive in the World. But they also built numerous other locomotives for the newly established railway networks. In 1833, Robert Stephenson was appointed Chief Engineer for the London to Birmingham railway, which was the first inter-city railway to enter London. This proved to be a difficult task and upon completion in 1838 Stephenson gained much respect in the engineering World.
One of Stephenson’s friends was Isambard Kingdom Brunel, one of the most famous engineers ever. Although the pair were competitors, they often helped each other with projects and gave advice when needed. As his career progressed Stephenson became more involved with bridges, constructing many notable bridges around the World. The most notable of these bridges being the ground-breaking tubular bridges including the Britannia Bridge. He also constructed the renowned High Level Bridge at Newcastle-upon-Tyne and the Royal Border Bridge near Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Like Thomas Telford, Stephenson became President of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1855 and served two years. He was also President of the newly formed Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was Member of Parliament for Whitby from 1847 until his death in 1859, and is buried in Westminster Abbey. In their honour the Railway Museum in North Shields is named after the Stephenson family.
History of the Collection
The core of the RLSM permanent collection was developed by museum founder Norman H. Strouse, whose vision was to have a representative collection of Stevensoniana that would allow interpretation of Stevenson’s life, times, and works. These three areas of focus continue to be the core of RLSM’s collecting policy.
The strong provenance to Robert Louis Stevenson of so much of the collection is the foundation of its international importance. Over the years, Norman H. Strouse and various direct heirs of the Stevenson family have provided the majority of this material. The largest of these include:
The Norman H. Strouse Collection
The original 800 item collection of the RLSM was the personal collection of the museum’s founder. It largely consisted of various editions of Stevenson’s works, books and articles about Stevenson, part of Stevenson’s personal library, original letters and manuscripts by Stevenson and his family and friends, and a limited amount of memorabilia.
Even after RLSM opened, Strouse continued expanding the collection through his purchases at auctions and private dealers, as a large amount of Stevensoniana had been auctioned by the Stevenson family in 1914 and had well documented provenance. Eventually this collection would also include hundreds of photographs, fine California landscape paintings from the late 19th century (by artists such as William Keith, Thomas Hill and Virgil Williams), personal items belonging to Stevenson and his family, commemorative postage stamps, etchings, watercolors, rare first and fine-press editions of Stevenson’s works, and more.
The Angel Collection
Hundreds of items acquired from Margaret “Angel” Bailey, who was Isobel Field’s personal assistant and caretaker at the end of her life. Isobel (née Osbourne) Field was Stevenson’s step-daughter who lived with the family while in the South Seas. She and her son Austin Strong inherited much of the Stevenson family possessions after Stevenson’s wife Fanny died in 1914.
This collection contains a large volume of papers and photographs from Isobel Field related to her life and Stevenson’s (she had published a well received autobiography in 1937 which concluded just after Stevenson’s death), several books, pieces of artwork by Field and others, and most spectacularly, family scrapbooks created by Field and her parents which together contain hundreds of photographs, artwork, letters, and some manuscripts.
The Austin Strong Collection
Austin Strong was Isobel Field’s son, who lived in Samoa with the Stevenson family as a boy, and was legally adopted by Stevenson after Isobel divorced. Strong went on to inherit much of the Stevenson family material, which he moved to his Nantucket house. He eventually became a successful playwright, whose work Seventh Heaven won the first Academy Award for Adapted Screenplay.
This collection originates from Strong’s heirs, both friends and family. It includes a collection of important Stevenson family scrapbooks, as well as many personal belongings of Stevenson – from his household furnishings (bookcases, writing desk, paintings, sculptures, vases, etc.), to the family silver, his childhood toys and sole attempt at woodworking, his camphor travel chest, over 100 books from the family library in Samoa (including Stevenson’s father’s notebooks on civil engineering), and similar belongings.