Government of Azerbaijan - History

Government of Azerbaijan - History

Capital:
name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
Independence:
30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
National holiday:
Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016 (2017)
Legal system:
civil law system
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Novruz MAMMADOV (since 21 April 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded presidential terms from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president
election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%
note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 69, CSP 2, AVP 1, Civil Unity 1, CUP 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Democratic Reforms 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, National Renaissance Party 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity Party 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, independent 43, invalid 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
Political parties and leaders:
Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]
Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]
Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]
Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
National Renaissance Party
Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]


Contents

The present-day territory of Armenia along with the western part of Azerbaijan, including Nakhchivan were historically part of the Armenian Highlands. [4]

In the Middle Ages, the Oghuz Turkic Seljuks, Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu held sway in the region. Afterward, the area was under the control of the Safavid Empire.

Under the Iranian Safavids, the area that constitutes the bulk of the present-day Republic of Armenia, was organized as the Erivan Province. The Erivan Province also had Nakhchivan as one of its administrative jurisdictions. A number of the Safavid era governors of the Erivan Province were of Turkic origin. Together with the Karabagh province, the Erivan Province comprised Iranian Armenia. [5] [6]

Iranian ruler Nader Shah (r. 1736-1747) later established the Erivan Khanate (i.e. province) from then on, together with the smaller Nakchivan Khanate, these two administrative entities constituted Iranian Armenia. [7] In the Erivan Khanate, the Armenian citizens had partial autonomy under the immediate jurisdiction of the melik of Erevan. [8] In the Qajar era, members of the royal Qajar dynasty were appointed as governors of the Erivan khanate, until the Russian occupation in 1828. [9] The heads of the provincial government of the Erivan Khanate were thus directly related to the central ruling dynasty. [10]

In 1828, per the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Iran was forced to cede the Erivan and Nakhchivan Khanates to the Russians. These two territories, which had constituted Iranian Armenia prior to 1828, were added together by the Russians and then renamed into the "Armenian Oblast".

With the departure of Azerbaijanis, not only did the Azeri cultural life in Armenia cease to exist, but its traces were being written out of history, according to journalist Thomas de Waal. In 1990 a mosque located on Vardanants Street was demolished by a bulldozer. [11] Geographical names of Turkic origin were changed en masse into Armenian ones, [12] a measure seen by some as a method to erase from popular memory the fact that Muslims had once formed a substantial portion of the local population. [13] According to Husik Ghulyan's study, in the period 2006-2018, more than 7700 Turkic geographic names that existed in the country have been changed and replaced by Armenian names. [14] Those Turkic names were mostly located in areas that previously were heavily populated by Azerbaijanis, namely in Gegharkunik, Kotayk and Vayots Dzor regions and some parts of Syunik and Ararat regions. [14]

Until the mid-fourteenth century, Armenians had constituted a majority in Eastern Armenia. [15] At the close of the fourteenth century, after Timur's campaigns, Islam had become the dominant faith, and Armenians became a minority in Eastern Armenia. [15] After centuries of constant warfare on the Armenian Plateau, many Armenians chose to emigrate and settle elsewhere. Following Shah Abbas I's massive relocation of Armenians and Muslims in 1604-05, [16] their numbers dwindled even further.

Some 80% of the population of Iranian Armenia were Muslims (Persians, Turkics, and Kurds) whereas Christian Armenians constituted a minority of about 20%. [17] As a result of the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and the Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), Iran was forced to cede Iranian Armenia (which also constituted the present-day Republic of Armenia), to the Russians. [7] [18]

After the Russian administration took hold of Iranian Armenia, the ethnic make-up shifted, and thus for the first time in more than four centuries, ethnic Armenians started to form a majority once again in one part of historic Armenia. [19] The new Russian administration encouraged the settling of ethnic Armenians from Iran proper and Ottoman Turkey. As a result, by 1832, the number of ethnic Armenians had matched that of the Muslims. [17] Anyhow, it would be only after the Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, which brought another influx of Turkish Armenians, that ethnic Armenians once again established a solid majority in Eastern Armenia. [20] Nevertheless, the city of Yerevan remained having a Muslim majority up to the twentieth century. [20] According to the traveller H. F. B. Lynch, the city was about 50% Armenian and 50% Muslim (Azerbaijanis and Persians) in the early 1890s. [8]

According to the Russian census of 1897, a significant population of Azeris still lived in Russian Armenia. They numbered about 300,000 persons or 37.8% in Russia's Erivan Governorate (roughly corresponding to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave, but excluding Syunik and most of northern Armenia). Most lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming and carpet-weaving. They formed the majority in 4 of the governorate's 7 districts (including Igdir and Nakhchivan, which are not part of Armenia today and Sharur-Daralagyoz district which is mostly in Azerbaijan) and were nearly as many as the Armenians in Yerevan (42.6% against 43.2%). [21] At the time, Eastern Armenian cultural life was centered more around the holy city of Echmiadzin, seat of the Armenian Apostolic Church. [22]

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were 149 Azerbaijani, 91 Kurdish and 81 Armenian villages in Syunik. [23] Traveller Luigi Villari reported in 1905 that in Yerevan the Tatars were generally wealthier than the Armenians, and owned nearly all of the land. [24]


Legislature

Azerbaijan’s legislative branch consists of 125 members elected by direct vote, a speaker, the Fist Deputy Speaker and two other deputy speakers. The speaker heads the unicameral National Assembly (Milli Majlis). The legislature formally exists as an independent body from the executive. Under the constitution, the national assembly is responsible for making laws and approving some of the executive decisions such as the appointment of cabinet members and approval of state budgets.


Azerbaijan Government

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for unlimited terms) election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025) prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded presidential terms from 5 to 7 years a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president

election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing

Citizenship Criteria:

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Legal System:

Suffrage:

Legislative Branch:

description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA seats by party - YAP 72, CSP 3, AVP 1, CUP 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, PDR 1, Great Order 1, VP 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, independent 43 composition - men 104, women 21, percent of women 16.8%

Judicial Branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers) Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis judges appointed for 10 years Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002) district and municipal courts

Regions or States:

66 rayons (rayonlar rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar sahar - singular)

rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab

cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax

Political Parties and Leaders:

Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]

Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]

Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]

Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]

Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]

Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]

Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]

Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]

Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]

Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]

Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]

Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]

International Law Organization Participation:

International Organization Participation:

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)

chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic Representation from US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert CEKUTA (since 19 February 2015)

embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospekti, Baku AZ1007

mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050


Government of Azerbaijan - History

His Excellency Mr. Ilham Aliyev, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan

It is with immense pleasure that I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude for your congratulatory mes.

His Excellency Mr. Ilham Aliyev, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan

I extend my warmest felicitations on the occasion of the 103rd Republic Day of Azerbaijan.

Statement by the President Ilham Aliyev

- Dear Mr. President, my dear brother Recep Tayyip Erdogan,

Distinguished guests from Turkey,

It is a momentous day in our lives today. It is a historic day. Today, we welcome the d.

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Azerbaijan Democratic Republic


Fourth Cabinet of Ministers of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan
(14 March, 1919 - 22 December, 1919)

The period of the Democratic Republic, 1918-1920, was a distorted and scarcely mentioned page in the history of Azerbaijan during the Soviet era. As archive documents on this period were always kept closed, researchers could not find out the real history, and those who did know about it deliberately described it as anti-national. But after Azerbaijan restored its independence, the "secret" and "top secret" archives were opened and a completely different view emerged. The new point of view is based on the history of the republic. The history that was slandered in the Soviet period turned out to be a proud and honourable one.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

TERRITORY AND BOUNDARIES

November 1918, sets out the territory of the republic as follows: Baku Province (Baku district, Javad district, Goychay district, Shamakhi district, Quba district, Lankaran district together with the Baku Circle) Yelizavetpol (Ganja) Province (Ganja district, Javanshir district, Nukha district, Arash district, Shusha district, Karyagi [Jabrayil] district, Zangezur district, Qazakh district [one-third of these territories which consisted of mountainous areas, were disputed between Azerbaijan and Armenia]) Irevan Province (Nakhchivan district, Sharur-Daralayaz district, Surmeli district, New Bayazid district, a part of Echmiadzin and Alexandropol districts) Tbilisi Province (Borchali district, a part of Tbilisi and Signakh districts) Zagatala region, Dagestan Province (a part of the Kur and Samur areas, also Derbent city and its suburbs together with part of Gaytar-Tabasaran Province). The borders in the north were determined by the River Samur and the Greater Caucasus range. The border with Georgia in the west was the same as the present borders of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The only discrepancy was the boundary between Borchali and Qazakh regions this passed through Poylu. The border with Armenia went down to Goycha Lake in the south and, passing through the middle of the lake, went as far as the Turkish border, west of Bash Norashen, including Bazarkecher and Zangezur.

Only 8,700 km2 of the land where Azerbaijanis were living was disputed (Borchali, Garayazi and Signakh districts). The corresponding areas (7,900 km2) of Irevan, Echmiadzin, Surmeli and New Bayazid districts, which were subordinate to Armenia, were disputed by the government of Azerbaijan.
The territory of the republic was 113,900 km2 of which 97,300 thousand km2 were undisputed

POPULATION

AZERBAIJAN PARLIAMENT

AZERBAIJAN GOVERNMENT

INTERNAL POLICY


The map of the ADR (Azerbaijan Democratic Republic)
issued in Russian in 1920 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the ADR.
During the Soviet period, this map was hidden in secret archives,
so Azerbaijani historians were not able to learn about the territorial
boundaries of the ADR (1918-1920).
After independence in 1991, Azerbaijan&rsquos Ministry of Foreign Affairs
published this map

FOREIGN POLICY

The main aim of the foreign policy of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was the promoting of the newly established state. The new government, therefore, conducted an active foreign policy from its inception. Information was sent to a number of European countries about the establishment of the new state. The government signed a friendship treaty with the Ottoman Empire in Batumi. The first step in foreign policy was to send a delegation, consisting of Mammad Emin Rasulzadeh and Aslan Saikurdski, to the Istanbul Conference, which was intended to be held between the Allied Powers (or the Entente Powers. The main allies were the French Third Republic, Imperial Russia, the British Empire, Italy and the United States.) and the South Caucasus republics. Alimardan bey Topchubashov was sent to Istanbul to create diplomatic relations with European countries.

After Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria) were defeated in World War I, the Allies&rsquo army came to Baku, led by Gen W.M. Thomson, on 17 November 1918. Despite the activity of the Armenian and Russian national councils against Azerbaijan, once Gen Thomson had familiarized himself with the situation, he declared that he respected highly the government of Azerbaijan

and its prime minister and that its government would be the only legal power in the country until the formation of the new coalition government.

One of the first steps of Azerbaijan was to determine the makeup of the delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. The delegation, led by Alimardan bey Topchubashov, left for Paris after holding a number of meetings with the representatives of different countries in Istanbul. The Azerbaijan issue was discussed at the Council of Allied Powers on 2 May 1919 for the first time. The delegation of Azerbaijan held several meetings. On 23 May a member of the British delegation, L. Mallet, met Topchubashov and they discussed political, military and economic issues. On 28 May Topchubashov met a member of the US delegation, Henry Morgenthau, during the first half of the day and President Woodrow Wilson during the second half. The memorandum of Azerbaijan was presented to the president of the USA. The government of the USA noted that cooperation with Azerbaijan would be effective.

In late June the British government adopted a decision on the withdrawal of troops from Azerbaijan. It was not possible to implement the Italian mandate in Azerbaijan in place of the British one. At the suggestion of the British foreign secretary, Lord Curzon, the independence of Azerbaijan was known de-facto in the assembly of the Supreme Council of the Paris Peace Conference on 11 January 1920. Following this, some countries opened their representative offices in Baku and some established diplomatic relations with Azerbaijan.

But, taking advantage of the international situation, Bolshevik Russia occupied Azerbaijan and put an end to its independence. The Azerbaijan Republic was substituted with Soviet Azerbaijan after 23 months of existence.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

The type of government of the independent state of Azerbaijan is a democratic republic. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic intends to establish friendly relations with all nations, especially with the neighbouring nations and states.

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ensures all citizens living within its borders full civil and political rights, regardless of ethnic origin, religion, class, profession or gender. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic creates broad opportuni ties for the independent development of all nationalities living in its territory.

Until the Constituent Assembly is convened, the supreme authority in Azerbaijan is vested in the National Council, elect ed by the Azerbaijani nation, and the provisional government, which is responsible to the National Council.


History


The historical Azerbaijani lands are one of the most ancient cultural sites of modern civilization. Archaeological finds dis¬covered in Azykh, Taghlar, Damjili, Dashsalahli, Gazma caves and in other historical sites, including the lower jaw of the Azyk man - Azykhantrop, who lived 300-400,000 years ago, also prove Azerbaijan to be one of the sites of the formation of ancient human beings.

Azerbaijan hasancient traditions of statehood as the first state establishments or ethnic-political units appeared in the Azerbaijani territory in the late 4th-early 3rd millenniums BC.

Azerbaijan was occupied by Sasanian-Iranian Empire in the 3rd century and by the Arab Caliphate in the 7th century.

After the fall of the Caliphate, Azerbaijan restored its ancient statehood traditions starting from the middle 9th century.

In the second half of the 18th century, Azerbaijan was divided into small states &ndash khanates and sultanates. Early 19 th century the North of Azerbaijan annexed to Russia, while the South to Iran under theGulustan (1813) and Turkmenchay (1828) treaties.

The First Republic: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920)

On May 28, 1918, the first democratic parliamentary republic in the Muslim East &ndash Azerbaijan Democratic Republic &ndash was proclaimed. The republic made great strides in building an independent, democratic state, creating the first parliament and government, state apparatus and governing institutions, defining the country`s borders, establishing military units with high combat capability, ensuring territorial integrity and national security.


Guided by the principles of people power and equality from the very first days of its existence, Azerbaijan Democratic Repub­lic eliminated racial, ethnic, religious and class inequalities by granting all citizens of the country the same rights. For the first time in the East and long before some European countries, women were granted the right to vote in Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan during the Soviet era (1920-1991)

On April 28, 1920, Azerbaijan was occupied by the Bolshevik Russia. During the Soviet era, Azerbaijan&rsquos statehood faced serious challenges. In 1920-1922, Azerbaijan formally maintained its independence which was de-facto recognized by the international community. In March 1922, three republics of the South Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia) were united under a single state of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (TSFSR) which completely ended formal independence.

During the Soviet period, the territories of Zangazur, Goycha provinces, part of Nakhchivan and other regions were seized from Azerbaijan and annexed to Armenia. The area of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was reduced from 114,000 sq km to 86,600 sq km. In addition, on July 7, 1923, the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) was established on the initia­tive of the Bolshevik leaders, which was a first step towards separating Nagorno-Karabakh from Azerbaijan.

Independent Republic of Azerbaijan (1991 - )

On October 18, 1991, when Azerbaijan gained its independence it declared itself as the political and legal successor of Azer­baijan Democratic Republic and demonstrated its commitment to its ancient traditions of statehood. Soon it restored state symbols of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

The first years of independence were extremely difficult for the Republic of Azerbaijan. The country was significantly weak­ened by Armenia&rsquos expanding aggression, internal power struggle and collapse of the economy. Irresponsible activity of Popu­lar Front-Musavat government brought Azerbaijan to the verge of collapse.

But national leader Heydar Aliyev`s returning to power in 1993 marked a turning point in the situation. On June 15, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected as chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan. That day went down into the history of Azerbaijan as National Salvation Day. On June 23, the Milli Majlis entrusted the presidential power to Heydar Aliyev. The people united much closer around their leader. On October 3, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected as President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Independent state building, ensuring security and territorial integrity, restoration of the economy, democratic development, establishment of international relations of Azerbaijan and its integration into the world community were the key priorities of Heydar Aliyev&rsquos national development strategy

The national leader&rsquos tenure as president from 1993 to 2003 went down in Azerbaijan`s history as a period of fundamental reforms.

The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev has successfully continued national leader Heydar Aliyev`s policy since 2003. These years marked revival and modernization of all spheres of the country`s social life, the channeling of a major part of energy revenues into the diversification of the economy and development of the non-oil sector.

The implemen­tation of numerous state programs and projects has played a crucial role in building a strong economic potential, mobilizing and effectively using human resources, creating up-to-date infrastructure in all the areas across the country, and improv­ing people`s welfare. Nowadays Azerbaijan is a country that pursues an independent policy, enjoys great influence and is recognized as a reliable partner in the world.

President Ilham Aliyev&rsquos purposeful policy, which is based on national interests, is unanimously supported by the people of Azerbaijan. This has been evidenced by the results of all the elections held in the country since 2003.


AZERBAIJAN

History tends to go different ways in separate countries, sometimes the way it goes is swell,
and sometimes it gets twisted. Some countries are in the middle of those two paths, and I would consider Azerbaijan to be a country in that category. Azerbaijan was an independent country originally formed in 1918, and one that unfortunately had a very shaky start and one that formed a very controversial government.


To begin, Azerbaijan had a rough start as a country. As said, Azerbaijan was originally founded in 1918 as an independant Democartic Republic. However, the country was declared a part of the Soviet Union as a Soviet State in 1921. Azerbaijan was unfortunately captured due to an invasion of the country by the army of the Soviet Union, The Red Army. After this event occured the country was renamed to The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic and was split up into three seperate Soviet Socialist Republiucs in 1936. But miracolously Azerbaijan was set free of the hands of The Soviet Union in 1991 following the collaspse of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan was now once again an

Nextly, Azerbaijan had a tough beginning as a country, but the hardships would only increase from there with the ever-so controversial government of Azerbiajan. The cuurent President of Azerbaijan has been named llham Aliyev, and has been President for over a decade now. Alyiyev came after his in 2003 as President and is currently on his third 5-year term as the President of Azerbaijan. However, Aliyev's election has been the subject of controversy as it has been reported that people voted multiple times for him and that some people at polling stations we're taken away and detained. Azerbaijan's government has been very much criticized in general for being reportedly inhumane. The government has been accussed of violating the freedom of press, religion, and assembly.

To conclude, history has gone in many different ways in certain places, wether negative, positive, or in the middle of those two. I hope you now understand why I consider Azerbaijan's history to be in the middle, it's had some hardships, but it hasn't had the worst history. However that is not to say that Azerbaijan did not have a shaky start, and that the government of Azerbaijan is not controversial, because it did have a rough start and has a controversial govenrnment. Azerbaijan has gone through hardships, as any country does, and it is still standing today with hopes of a brighter future.


Republic of Azerbaijan | Azarbaycan Respublikasi

Background:
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established in 1918, it was the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union only two years later. The country regained independence in 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Azerbaijan is one of the six modern independent Turkic states. 95% of its population are Muslims, 85% are Shia Muslims and 15% Sunni Muslims, making Azerbaijan the country with the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran.

Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Russia recognized as part of Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory.

Corruption in Azerbaijan is ubiquitous, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism.

Time:
Local Time = UTC +4h (DST in Summer +5h)
Actual Time: Mon-June-21 13:15

Other Cities: Ali Bayramli, Baki, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Saki, Sumqayit, Susa, Xankandi, Yevlax.

Government:
Type: Republic.
Constitution: Approved in November 1995 referendum.
Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union).

Geography:
Location: South Caucasus bordered by Russia to the north, the Caspian Sea to the east, Iran to the south, and Georgia and Armenia to the west.
Area: 86,600 km² (33 774 sq. mi.) includes Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh.
Terrain: Caucasus Mountains to the north, lowland in the central area through which the Kura River flows.

Climate: Dry, subtropical with hot summers and mild winters forests, meadows, and alpine tundra in the mountains.

People:
Nationality: Azerbaijani, Azeri.
Population: 9.7 million (in 2016)
Ethnic groups: Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9%. Note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by Armenians.
Religion: Muslim 93.4% (majority Shi'a), Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox Church 2.3%, and other 1.8%.
Languages: Azerbaijani 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, and other 6%.
Literacy: 97%.

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina.

Agriculture products: Cotton, tobacco, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats.

Industries: Petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment steel, iron ore cement chemicals and petrochemicals textiles.

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports partners: Russia 19.9%, Turkey 16.5%, UK 8.6%, Germany 6.6%, Italy 6.3%, US 4.1% (2015)

Currency: Azerbaijan Manat beginning January 2006, 1 new Manat (AZN) = 5000 old Manats (AZM).

Political system

According to the 1995 Constitution, Azerbaijan is a republic with a presidential government system. But the political system of Azerbaijan has been characterized since 1992 by the authoritarian leadership of Azerbaijan's presidents and undermined by corruption. Transparency International ranks Azerbaijan as one of many low-scoring countries in the region (#119 out of 167, where the least corrupt country ranks #1). Azerbaijan’s political rights rating at Freedom House declined from 6 to 7 due to an intensified crackdown on criticism and dissent widespread violations in connection with the November 2015 parliamentary elections and serious violations of the right to a fair trial.

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Official Sites of Azerbaijan

President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
The Office of President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with a portrait of the president and information about Azerbaijan.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan.


Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the UN
Azerbaijan's mission to the United Nations.
Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Washington D.C.
Diplomatic Missions of Azerbaijan
List of diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan abroad and
Diplomatic Missions accredited in Azerbaijan.

Map of Azerbaijan
Political map of Azerbaijan.

Google Earth Azerbaijan
Searchable map and satellite view of Azerbaijan.
Google Earth Baku
Searchable map and satellite view of Azerbaijan's capital city.

Map of the Caspian Sea
Map of the Caspian Sea Region.
Caucasus and Central Asia Map
Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus region.
Map of Western Asia
Map of Western Asia and the Middle East region.
Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.

Reporters Without Borders ranks Azerbaijan 163 out of the 180 countries included in the 2016 World Press Freedom Index . BBC states that Azerbaijan's impressive economic performance over the past two decades has not been matched by the development of free media. Mainstream media offer little scope for rigorous reporting of government activity or debate about policy.

Azertac
State information agency, official news from Azerbaijanian government.

Azerbaijan
State-owned Azerbaijan news (in Azeri).

News.Az
English language news from Azerbaijan.

Arts & Culture

AZ Art Gallery
Contemporary Art and Artists in Azerbaijan.

Museums
Baku Museum of Modern Art
Azerbaijan's modern art museum in Baku with the 'collection of the best works of painting and sculpture of Azerbaijan avant-guardists from 2nd half of the 20th century up to now.'

Museum Center of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism
Cultural center of the Azerbaijan Republic in Baku.

National Museum of the Azerbaijan History
Azerbaijan's largest museum is housed in an Italian Renaissance-style mansion in Baku.

Nizami Museum of Azerbaijani Literature
The National museum of Azerbaijan literature.

Business & Economy

Azerbaijan's high economic growth has been attributable to large and growing oil and gas exports, but some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth, including construction, banking, and real estate. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa pipelines remain the main economic driver, efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway.

United States - Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce
The site provides also information about Azerbaijan.


Transportation
Azerbaijan Airlines
AZAL, the Baku based National Air Company.

Azerbaijan Railways
Azerbaijan Railways is one of the successors of the Soviet Railways, it is headquartered in Baku. (in Azeri and Russian)

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Azerbaijan - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Azerbaijan: accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and much more.

Azerbaijan International Magazine
An independent magazine with issues related to Azerbaijanis around the world.

A to Z of Azerbaijan
Encyclopaedic index of Azerbaijan related information.

Cities:
Baku
Official website of the city.
Ganja
Site about the city of Ganja.

Education

Environment & Nature

Geology Institute of Azerbaijan (GIA)
GIA is a leading organizations in the fields of Azerbaijan geology study and development of new fundamental trends in geoscience.

Caspian Sea Environment Programme
The CEP's mission is to assist the Caspian littoral states to achieve the goal of environmentally sustainable development and management of the Caspian environment for the sake of long-term benefit for the Caspian inhabitants.

Environmental movement in Azerbaijan
Site with comprehensive information about the main environmental problems of Azerbaijan.

History

Azerbaijan History
History of Azerbaijan by the Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

History of Baku and Azerbaijan
History of Baku from ancient times to present days.

Search

Azerbaijan Online
An Azerbaijan portal site.
Azerbaijan Search
Azerbaijan search engine (Russian/English)


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