9 April 1944

9 April 1944

9 April 1944

April 1944

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War at Sea

German submarine U-515 sunk off Madeira

France

Giraud is appointed Inspector-General of French Armies



9th Cavalry Regiment (1866-1944)

The 9th Cavalry was one of the original six regiments of the regular U.S. Army set aside for black enlisted men. These were authorized by Congress in the act of July 28, 1866 reorganizing the army for post-Civil War service, mainly against native peoples in the West. Colonel Edward Hatch, an officer with no military experience prior to the Civil War but who distinguished himself as the commander of an Iowa cavalry regiment during the rebellion, was the 9th’s first commander. Initial recruiting efforts centered on New Orleans and vicinity. By February 1867, twelve companies were organized and on their way to Texas.

The regiment participated in numerous frontier campaigns, against the Comanche, the Ute, and most notably the Apache between 1877 and 1881. In the early 1880s it also engaged in efforts to restrain settlers seeking to take up land in Indian Territory before that area was legally open. In the 1870s the regiment was involved in the El Paso Salt War and in the 1890s it participated in efforts to restore order in the wake of the Johnson County, Wyoming Cattle War (1892) and railroad labor disputes (1894). Colonel Hatch remained in command until his death at Fort Robinson, Nebraska in April 1889. Forty-four of its soldiers were killed in action during this period, 28 against the Apaches.

Eleven members of the regiment received the Medal of Honor for actions between 1870 and 1890. Sergeant Emanuel Stance was the first in 1870. He was followed by Sergeant Thomas Boyne, Private John Denny, Corporal Clinton Greaves, Private Henry Johnson, Sergeant George Jordan, Sergeant Thomas Shaw, Sergeant Augustus Walley, Sergeant Moses Williams, Corporal William Wilson, and Sergeant Brent Woods. All of the awards were for bravery in combat against Indians, eight against Apaches.

The first black regular army chaplain, Henry Vinton Plummer, served with the 9th from his appointment in 1884 until his dismissal from the service ten years later for conduct unbecoming an officer. Lieutenant John Alexander, the second black graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, served with the regiment from his graduation in 1887 until his death in 1894, as did the third, Lieutenant Charles Young, from 1889 to 1894. Benjamin O. Davis Sr. served with the regiment as an enlisted man and was mentored by Charles Young before receiving his commission in 1901. In 1940 Davis became the first African American promoted to General in the U.S. Army.

The 9th had three men killed in combat at San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the war against Spain in 1898. It also fought in the Philippines between 1900 and 1902, losing two men. The regiment returned to the islands in 1907 and remained there until 1909. It remained on the Mexican border during World War I, except for another period in the Philippines. The 9th was still a horse cavalry regiment when it was assigned to be part of the 2nd Cavalry Division in October 1940. It saw no action in World War II and was deactivated in North Africa in May 1944. Its personnel were transferred to other Army service units.


9 April 1944 - History

L-r: Lloyd and Eula Eby, Oneta Sewell, Erma Funk, Bernadine Hoffman.

On April 9, 1944, five United Brethren missionaries met at the train station in Fort Wayne, Ind. All were headed to Africa in the midst of World War II. In Europe, American forces were battling through Italy–Anzio, Monte Casino–while allied bombers struck German assets throughout the continent. Russians had the German army in retreat across a wide front. US foces were advancing across the Pacific, island by bloody island, and the Japanese were being pushed out of Burma. D-Day was two months away…as was the arrival of these five travelers in Sierra Leone.

It was a low-point for our mission work in Sierra Leone. Dr. Leslie Huntley and nurse Emma Hyer had both left the country and were now in the US military, forcing the Gbangbaia dispensary to close. Only a couple missionaries remained. But now, reinforcements were on the way, including persons who could serve in every aspect of the mission–leadership, education, medicine.

Lloyd and Eula Eby were the only veterans, but had now been gone from Sierra Leone for 18 years. Joining them were three young women, all first-term missionaries who, nobody knew at the time, would spend many years in Sierra Leone. Erma Funk, an ordained minister and bishop’s daughter, would stay for three terms, mostly in Bonthe with the Minnie Mull school. Oneta Sewell, a nurse from Ohio, would give three terms at the Gbangbaia dispensary and Mattru Hospital. Bernadine Hoffman would spend an incredible 39 years in Sierra Leone.

The five missionaries traveled by train to Miami, and Pan American Airlines flew them the rest of the way. They left Miami on April 14. Three days later, after a bunch of stops—Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, British Guyana (now Guyana), and Dutch Guiana (now Suriname)—they arrived in Belem, a city in northern Brazil. Their destination was Natal, located on the eastern tip of Brazil which jutted into the Atlantic Ocean. From there, they would fly to Africa.

Pan Am could only take three of the travelers on to Natal, so the three single women left on April 19 and arrived the next day the Ebys joined them several days later.

We’ll resume their story on April 20, and tell about the six weeks they spent in Natal, and their fortuitous encounter with a young Naval officer named Lt. DeWitt Baker.


Devonshire Regiment during WW2

WW2 Battalions of the Devonshire Regiment

1st Battalion:
September 1939: On the outbreak of war the Battalion was in India. It spent the entire war in India, Ceylon and Burma.

2nd Battalion:
The Battalion for the duration of the war was part of 231st Infantry Brigade and fought in Malta, Sicily, and Italy.
06 June 1944: On D-Day, the Battalion should have landed at Le Hamel, on Gold Beach, behind the 1st Hampshires. However, owing to bad weather and an unexpectedly high tidal surge, three of the four Companies were carried over a mile to the east before they could land and had to make their way to their assigned assembly point on foot. The Battalion continued to fight throughout the Battle of Normandy and the liberation of North-West Europe.

12th Battalion:
06 June 1944: The Battalion landed in Normandy where it was involved in “Operation Mallard. It was part of the 6th Airlanding Brigade, 6th Airborne Division.
12 June 1944: It also fought in the Battle of Breville.
December 1944: Involved in the Battle of the Bulge.
24 March 1945: The Battalion with the same Division fought a long side with the American 17th Airborne Division in the Rhine crossing “Operation Varsity”.


9 April 1944 - History

Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 : background documents on Germany, 1944-1959, and a chronology of political developments affecting Berlin, 1945-1956
(1959)

Communiqué by President Eisenhower and Chancellor Adenauer, on Germany and European security, April 9, 1953, pp. 107-110 PDF (1.8 MB)

This material may be protected by copyright law (e.g., Title 17, US Code).| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright

© This compilation (including design, introductory text, organization, and descriptive material) is copyrighted by University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents.

This copyright is independent of any copyright on specific items within the collection. Because the University of Wisconsin Libraries generally do not own the rights to materials in these collections, please consult copyright or ownership information provided with individual items.

Images, text, or other content downloaded from the collection may be freely used for non-profit educational and research purposes, or any other use falling within the purview of "Fair Use".

In all other cases, please consult the terms provided with the item, or contact the Libraries.


9 April 1944 - History

Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 : background documents on Germany, 1944-1959, and a chronology of political developments affecting Berlin, 1945-1956
(1959)

Communiqué by President Eisenhower and Chancellor Adenauer, on Germany and European security, April 9, 1953, pp. 107-110 PDF (1.8 MB)

Letter from President Eisenhower to Chancellor Adenauer, on the East German uprising, July 23, 1953, pp. 110-112 PDF (1.3 MB)

This material may be protected by copyright law (e.g., Title 17, US Code).| For information on re-use see: http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Copyright

© This compilation (including design, introductory text, organization, and descriptive material) is copyrighted by University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents.

This copyright is independent of any copyright on specific items within the collection. Because the University of Wisconsin Libraries generally do not own the rights to materials in these collections, please consult copyright or ownership information provided with individual items.

Images, text, or other content downloaded from the collection may be freely used for non-profit educational and research purposes, or any other use falling within the purview of "Fair Use".

In all other cases, please consult the terms provided with the item, or contact the Libraries.


President’s Month in Review: April 1944

INTENSIFYING the execution of a fundamental objective—the proper reconstruction of the national economy to measure the self-sufficiency of the nation—is the promulgation of I Executive Order No. 46, which creates an Economic Planning Board to be headed by the Honorable Manuel A. Roxas. The Board, under the order, shall formulate and prescribe policies for the Office of the Food Administrator. Closely related to Executive Order No 46 are Executive Orders Nos. 48 and 49. The first provides for a Board of Directors for the Biqasang-Bayan, a new body charged with the control of rice distribution, and successor of the National Rice and Corn Corporation the second amends Ordinance No. 1 which deals with the control of the distribution of rice and corn in view of the approval by His Excellency, Jose P. Laurel, President of the Republic of the Philippines, of the plan recommended by the Economic Planning Board regarding the control of the supply, procurement, movement, transfer, sale and distribution of rice throughout the Philippines.

ORDINANCE No. 15 prohibits the destruction of trees bearing edible fruits growing in public or private lands and providing penalties for violations thereof.

RESPONSIBLE for the facilitation of the distribution of rice and other prime commodities, the Food Administrator issued Order No. 29 dealing with the organization and operation of the Manila Consumers’ Cooperative Associations established by Ordinance No. 8. The Food Administrator also issued Order No. 30, the title of which follows: Rules and regulations governing the supply, procurement, movement, transfer, sale and distribution of rice, corn, mongo, peanut, and beans prohibiting certain officials and agents of Government entities and agencies and other associations from restricting the free movement of these commodities and prescribing the allowance of one cavan per person from May 1 to December 31, 1944. The Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Ministry Special Order No. 20 designated Eugenio de Vera to take charge of the Bureau of Agricultural Development.

FOR the purpose of attending to the needs of the Imperial Japanese Forces for laborers to work in their various projects throughout the Philippines and at the same time of relieving unemployment, Executive Order No. 47, creates a Labor Recruitment Agency, to be placed under the direct supervision of the Minister of Health, Labor and Public Welfare. The same Minister was appointed Chairman of the Labor Day Committee, created under Administrative Order No. 20, to take charge of the celebration of Labor Day to be held on May 6, 1944. In a message read by the Honorable Arsenio N. Luz, Chairman of the Board of Information, to the Labor Institute of we Kalibapi at the opening of its sixth term, His Excellency, President Jose P. Laurel reminded the delegates to the institute that the “New Order is committed to the principle that the welfare of the community is superior to the welfare of the individual and, for this reason, the individual should find his greatest happiness in working for the welfare of all. The understanding of this principle is basic to our survival as a people. We can ill-afford to neglect it if we believe that we have a glorious destiny ahead of us.”

MANIFESTATION of the policy to attain a simple, economical and efficient government machinery is the issuance of Executive Order No. 45 and Administrative Order No. 21. Executive Order No. 45 amends the procedure m the matter of appointments and promotions of subordinate officers and employees, while Administrative Order No. 21 lengthily dwells with the rules and regulations governing the provincial assignments of officials and employees in accordance with paragraph 6 of Administrative Order No 19 dated March 7, 1944.

ON April 8, 1944, the President issued Ordinance No. 13, integrating all researches, organizing a Council of Scientists and a Research Advisory Board, and setting aside funds for the purpose, saying that there is an urgent necessity of establishing a national research center with a view to intensifying and coordinating all scientific researches and investigations, not only with the laudable end in view of contributing to the sum total of human knowledge, but for the more practical purpose of solving our immediate problems connected with food, clothing, shelter, medicine, industry and economic reconstruction. Expounding the role that the Filipino scientist must play in the present emergency, President Laurel declared, in a speech before Filipino scientists on April 14, 1944, that the Government is disposed to give full support to any scientific plan of solving the primordial problems of nutrition, medicine, and other essential needs of our suffering population. He added that the sum of P500,000 is already available to the Council of Scientists for whatever scientific discovery or plan it may map out to ameliorate the present conditions arising from the need of medicinal products, and that he is willing to appropriate any time an additional sum of P1,500,000 to enable the Council to fulfill its important mission.

CONNECTED with this problem of solving the physical needs of the people is the problem of their education. In two speeches on April 17, 1944, the Chief Executive urged Filipino educators that “the primary course should be made as rich and complete as possible so as to make the primary or elementary school a real university for the masses. This should be the case because the masses have no opportunity to pursue higher education for many reasons, either because they are too poor or because they have to engage early in life in the actual pursuit of earning a living. The Filipino boy or girl who finishes these veritable universities for the masses must meet the following two-fold requirements for which the primary grades must have prepared them: (1) character education, and (2) vocational education.”

ORDINANCE No. 14, providing for the continuance of the liquidation of the Teachers’ Retirement and Disability Fund as provided in Commonwealth Acts Nos. 187 and 237, was promulgated on April 12, 1944, in order to help many retired teachers who are in dire need of immediate financial relief.

PREOCCUPIED with the problems that attend the formation of a national language, President Laurel, in an address delivered at the former Philippine Normal School in connection with the celebration of Balagtas Day, declared that a nation aspiring to become great and strong must have only one language which can be understood by all, and enriching the language does not mean coining new words which no one can understand. “Read Florante at Laura and you will discover that its greatest worth lies in the simplicity of its language easily understood by all,” he said.

IMPORTANT appointments for this month include those of Dr. Camilo Osias as Vice-President and Director General of the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Association for Service to the New Philippines) of Manuel A. Roxas as Chairman and Rafael R. Alunan, Jose G. Sanvictores, Jose Paez, and Vicente Singson Encarnacion as Members of the Board of Directors of the Bigasang Bayan (Biba) and of the Honorable, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as Chairman, and Generals Juan Cailles, Mateo Capinpin, and Jose de los Reyes, and the Honorable, the Chairman of the Council of State as members of the Board of Awards and Decorations. The Board of Awards and Decorations was created by Ordinance No. 16 which also created the Order of Tirad Pass and prescribes rules and regulations for its award. This ordinance provides that the Order of Tirad Pass is to be awarded by the President to “any member of the Philippine Constabulary who has or had performed acts of extraordinary heroism or meritorious services of exceptional character in the line of duty and who has or had proved himself to be a model of gallantry, courage, bravery and devotion to duty in the defense of the integrity of the Philippines, the existence of the Government, the honor and dignity of the Republic, in the maintenance of peace and order, and in the preservation of the unity of the Filipino people.”

This appeal for the preservation of national unity was also repeated in a message of the President to the Convention of Provincial Governors, Constabulary Inspectors, Municipal Mayors and Kalibapi leaders in the City of Cebu. “I ask each and all members of the convention and those under them,” said the President, “to help their Government in uniting our people, in restoring peace and order, and in producing all foodstuffs our country needs. Let us all be one in our national aspiration and endeavor whatever political differences we may have had or now have.”

A message of the same tenor was also read before the graduates of the Commissioned Officers’ Class of the Philippine Constabulary on April 12, 1944.

THREE days later, the Philippine Gratitude Mission, headed by Honorable Benigno S. Aquino, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of the Philippines to the Empire of Japan, was feted at Malacañan. The purpose of the mission, it was explained, was two-fold: “First, to express to His August Majesty the Emperor of Japan as well as to the Government of His August Majesty and to the great people of Japan, the undying gratitude of eighteen million Filipinos for everything that Japan has done for the Philippines—particularly for the grant of the coveted boon of political freedom, which has been the supreme aspiration of the Filipinos for centuries. Second, to enable the Filipinos, through this mission, to get in closer contact with the Japanese Government and people, through their leaders. By getting together and developing mutual understanding, the people of Greater East

Asia can make of the Hemispheric Bloc an end instrument of world peace and progress.”

The record of the special mission can be followed in the different speeches of Ambassador Aquino who, after having been granted an audience and awarded the First Class Order of the Rising Sun by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan on April 21, 1944, stated that “It was truly a rare privilege for us to be bearers of the message of good will from His Excellency, the President of the Republic of the Philippines, and to be the agents of the Filipino people in expressing their profound gratitude for the recognition of the independence of our country and the conclusion of the Pact of Alliance between the magnanimous Empire of Dai Nippon and the Republic of the Philippines.”

At the banquet he gave welcoming the mission His Excellency, General Hideki Tozyo, Premier of Japan, reviewed the concerted efforts of Filipino leaders from the first days when Japan unfurled “its banner of crusade for the liberation of the peoples of East Asia” to the present, and expressed the hope that as Japan marches steadily onward to effect a complete victory in the war of liberation, “the people of the Philippines will on their part render even greater efforts to cooperate with Nippon for the purpose of winning this war and building Greater East Asia.”

In reply, Ambassador Aquino reiterated “the unshakable loyalty of our people to the cause of Japan which is the common cause of all East Asians.” Said he: “Our loyalty, illustrious Premier, is not founded on any design of aggrandizement or enrichment, nor on any interest in the realization of our sacred ideals of liberty and independence, because they have already been attained. It is founded on the conviction that our independence would be ‘only for a day’ if the Japanese Empire did not obtain in this war a complete and final victory. Only with that victory can our Co-Existence and Co-Prosperity Sphere be consolidated, a consolidation which shall serve as the impregnable wall for the preservation of the independence of all the nations which it protects. What is of importance to the Filipinos as well as to all East Asians is not ephemeral independence but one that is lasting and real.”

The following day, he said that what matters to the Philippines and “to all her sister nations in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere is an enduring independence and this cannot be attained without the complete and final victory of Japan in this war, because only that victory can cement, strengthen, and solidify, until they become impregnable, the bulwarks of our Sphere.”

INCLUDED in the Foreign Affairs section of this Gazette are speeches by Philippine Ambassador to Japan Jorge B. Vargas delivered in the month of March. In his speech before the Federation of South Seas Associations, Ambassador Vargas reviewed the events in the Philippines before and after the fall of Manila, and explained that “the Filipinos are only too willing to do their part in promoting mutual understanding and goodwill. If the Republic of the Philippines has entered into a firm and fast and all-inclusive alliance with Nippon, it has been due not only to a natural sentiment of gratitude for the boon of independence, but also to a sincere enthusiasm for the ideals which Nippon pursues in the present war, the ideals which found such eloquent expression in the Greater East Asia Declaration last year.” In the address he delivered before the Seiwaki on March 20, 1944, he outlined the three requirements of economic cooperation between Philippines and Japan, while his address before the Philippine Society of Japan stressed a Nippon-Philippine collaboration based justice and understanding.


The Battle of Imphal 1944

The siege of Imphal and the resulted failure of the Japanese to take Imphal in 1944 was to have a major impact on the war in the Far East. Imphal, along with the unsuccessful attack on the nearby garrison town of Kohima ended the Japanese drive to Delhi. The failure of the Japanese to take Imphal and Kohima also signalled the start of the Allied re-conquest of Burma.

Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur, is some 70 miles to the west of the Burmese border. To the north of Imphal are the Naga Hills and to the south the Chin Hills – both very difficult areas to use mechanised transport. A metalled road connected Imphal to Kohima to the north and to Moreh, to the southeast, on the Burmese border. During the rainy season the road could be put out of use due to landslides or by simply being washed away. Imphal was also served by tracks used by oxen – but they were a slow mode of transport for the military. Lieutenant-General Sir Geoffrey Evans, commander of the 5 th Indian Division that fought at Imphal, stated that during the monsoon season “movement to all intents and purposes ceased “.

After the Japanese attacked and conquered Burma, Imphal took on a major military importance. In May 1942, the Burma Corps, commanded by General Slim, started to arrive in Imphal. Evans described these soldiers “as mere skeletons of their former selves”. If the Japanese had moved swiftly for Imphal then the outcome that was to change the war in the region may have been very different. In fact, the Japanese success in Burma had been so quick that their supplies lines had become overstretched. As a result, they had to halt their advance to reorganise themselves. This gave the military in Imphal the time to organise themselves. The most pressing need was to improve the lines of communications to Imphal so that men and equipment could be moved forward with more ease. Roads and tracks were improved and six new airfields were constructed. Fuel and ammunition dumps were built.

Japanese intelligence concluded that the work being done in and around Imphal was in preparation for a major Allied offensive against the Japanese in Burma. They concluded that Imphal was central to this offensive and to counter it, they would attack and take Imphal. In September 1943, Lieutenant-General Mutaguchi, commander of the Japanese XV Army, was ordered to prepare for ‘Operation U-Go’ – the capture of Imphal. He had about 100,000 men under his command to complete the task. One month before Mutaguchi’s planned attack, the Japanese attacked Arakan in an attempt to draw away some of Imphal’s defenders.

On February 4th 1944, the Japanese attack on Arakan started. This put Mutaguchi’s force on an effective countdown. The RAF observed Japanese troop movements on the Indian/Burmese border. Documents found on the bodies of two Japanese soldiers near the border showed that they were from a division new to the area. Intelligence photos also showed that a new road had been built to the border and that Japanese tanks been moved there.

The Japanese started their attack on the night of March 7 th , as planned. Mutaguchi stirred his men with his order of the day, which was:

“To sweep aside the paltry opposition we encounter and add lustre to army traditions by achieving a victory of annihilation.”

By March 12 th various British units based near the Indian/Burma border had been in combat with the Japanese. On March 13 th such was the ferocity of the Japanese attacks that these units were given permission to withdraw to the Imphal Plain. General Scoones, commander of the 4 th Corps, believed it was better to move his men back rather than face the prospect of them being defeated in battle and being lost to the cause. The withdrawal to the Plain took 20 days.

Allied positions in the area became so threatened that a decision was taken, supported by Mountbatten, to airlift in reinforcements and supplies. Between March 19 th and March 29 th , the 5 th Indian Division was flown in along with artillery guns, jeeps and mules. By the time the first of the 5 th ’s men arrived, the Japanese were only 30 miles from Imphal.

Resolute action by forces at a small hill at Sangshak had far reaching consequences for the Japanese. Though the British had to evacuate the hill on March 26 th , leaving behind the wounded and equipment, the fighting done by the 50 th Parachute Brigade was sufficient to significantly delay the Japanese advance on Imphal from the northwest. This threw Mutaguchi’s timetable into disarray. The 50 th Parachute Brigade gave Scoone’s an extra two days to organise defences in Imphal. As significant, they had inflicted heavy casualties on the Japanese – far more than Mutaguchi had anticipated.

“The defenders of Sangshak had, in effect, made a valuable contribution to the outcomes of the battle, and although the battalions suffered heavily, it was not long before they were ready for action again.” (Lieutenant-General Evans)

On March 29 th , the Japanese cut the Imphal-Kohima road and effectively laid siege to Imphal. The only link to the outside that the defenders had was by air.

The part played by the RAF in the successful defence of Imphal cannot be overstated. During the siege, the RAF delivered 14,000,000 pounds of rations, 1,000,000 gallons of petrol, 43,000,000 cigarettes and 1,200 bags of mail. On the return journey to their bases, RAF aircraft took out 13,000 wounded and 43,000 non-combatants. They also flew in 12,000 reinforcements.

Despite his position, Scoones was not too despondent. Documents taken from Japanese dead indicated that morale among the Japanese was starting to wane and the monsoon was due to arrive, which would make the life of the soldiers out in the open very difficult. Scoones also knew that his men were concentrated while the Japanese had their men more strung out.

However, his confidence was briefly shaken when on April 6 th , the Japanese took a hill at Nungshigum, a mere four miles to the north of Imphal itself. Scoones prided himself on the intelligence system he had built up around Imphal but it had failed to detect the totally unexpected arrival of a whole Japanese infantry regiment. Fierce fighting ensued to retake the hill. This was only completed on April 13 th but both sides took heavy casualties and the British lost a significant number of officers during this action.

Heavy fighting was also experienced to the southeast of Imphal where the Japanese came up against Ghurkhas and Indian troops of the 20 th Division.

Ferocious fighting also occurred to the south of Imphal along the road to Tiddim. Such was the intensity of the fighting that it continued after the siege had actually been lifted. Four of the five Victoria Crosses awarded during the Imphal siege were won here.

The physical condition of the men under his command worried Scoones. They had to get used to dry rations only and this lack of nutrition was very debilitating. The only consolation Scoones had with regard to this was the fact that the very few captured Japanese prisoners that the British had clearly indicated that the Japanese were in a far worse physical state. While the Japanese had got near to Imphal, they were not in a position to actually take the city.

The defenders at Imphal were massively helped when the Japanese were defeated at Kohima as it meant that Allied soldiers based there could move south and attack the Japanese effectively in their rear. Mutaguchi responded by dismissing three of his senior officers, which did little to help morale in the Japanese Army based around Imphal simply because such action had no precedence in the Japanese Army prior to the siege.

On June 22 nd British troops formally at Kohima reached men from the 5 th Indian Division at a point called Milestone 107 along the Imphal-Kohima road – some twenty miles north of Imphal. It signalled the end of the siege.

On July 18 th , the Japanese High Command agreed that a withdrawal was required to the River Chindwin on the Burma side of the Burma/Indian border. The Japanese had sustained 53,000 casualties while the British had lost 17,000 men killed and wounded.

“The disaster at Imphal was perhaps the worst of its kind yet chronicled in the annals of war.” Kase Toshikazu, Japanese Foreign Office official.

General Slim could concentrate his resources on the re-conquest of Burma now that the invincibility of the Japanese Army had been shattered.

“The British, Indian and Ghurkha soldiers stood up to the heavy and incessant strain, largely due to the high standards of leadership, the mutual confidence and friendship between all races and creeds in the Indian divisions, the magnificent work of the medical authorities – and by no means least, to their innate sense of humour in the most adverse circumstances.” (Evans)

Because supplying advancing troops was extremely difficult at best, both Japanese divisions (the XV and XXXI) had to carry a month’s food supplies with them. However, there was no flexibility in Mutaguchi’s plan. If the time scale went over the planned one month, his men would not only be short of food, but they would hit the monsoon season.


9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 04 Feb 2016, 04:53

Working up a game variant Op anvil being executed as originally planned in april 1944. One unanswered question concerning the German OB is the battle worthyness of the 9th & 10th SS Divisions in early April. It seems they were in reserve on the eastern front in April, & rushed to France when Op Overlord started. Is it safe to assume the same could happen in early April? & if so what was their strength in terms of men & training. Second, did the two pick up replacement equipment in German while enroute? Or bring everything from the east?

Would be very appreciative of any of these details from a expert, or a lead to accurate source.

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by NagaSadow » 04 Feb 2016, 10:36

You can find the Zustandsberichte by 9. & 10. SS-Pz.Div. both at:

Reports by I./SS-Pz.Rgt. 9 and 10 are somewhere in the same thread as well.

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 04 Feb 2016, 14:53

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 04 Feb 2016, 15:20

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Jan-Hendrik » 04 Feb 2016, 16:22

The 19th was in the west for being refreshed in June/July 1944.

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Richard Anderson » 04 Feb 2016, 16:35

Jan-Hendrik wrote: The 19th was in the west for being refreshed in June/July 1944.

Exactly. The first elements began arriving in Holland on 24 May for refitting, then returned to the Ostheer beginning on 16 July.

9. SS-Panzer was in the area Orange-Salon-Nimes-Montpellier until 26 March when it was ordered to Tarnapol. First elements were in action on 11 April.
10. SS-Panzer was in the area between the Dives and Seine and was also ordered east on 26 March, with the first trains arriving at Podhajce on 4 April.

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 04 Feb 2016, 17:13

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Urmel » 05 Feb 2016, 13:26

They were both deeply involved in the Tarnopol desaster.

Maybe run this through Google translate.

The enemy had superiority in numbers, his tanks were more heavily armoured, they had larger calibre guns with nearly twice the effective range of ours, and their telescopes were superior. 5 RTR 19/11/41

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 05 Feb 2016, 14:57

Almost did not need the translate app. The high school German is starting to return : )

Yes the Tarnapol battle would prevent any quick return of either Div to the west. First week of May looks like the absolute soonest they could have returned. Looks like they would need to replace losses, but its not clear how much either had lost in the April battle. For those curious the screen shot is from the current test of the game variant. Weather allowed the landing first week of April, landing was made on the Riveria, Marsailles was just captured after a two week siege. A dozen divisions are working their way south through air interedction to reinforce 19th Army & Army Grp G.

Re: 9th & 10th SS Condition April 1944?

Post by Richard Anderson » 05 Feb 2016, 17:08

10. SS-Panzer lost 577 KIA, 1,432 WIA, and 67 MIA. I expect 9. SS-Panzer's losses would have been similar, but haven't found what they were. The hiatus from the end of April to June when they were ordered to return to France was occupied in absorbing replacements while engaged in a desultory anti-partisan campaign.


The Woodward Tornado of April 9, 1947

This tornado was considered to be the longest, widest, and most destructive ever to have occurred in this section of the country. The tornado ripped through three states in a 221 mile long path, leaving in its wake 169 killed, 980 injured, and a property damage of about $9,700,000.

The tornado originated about 5:42 p. m. CST, April 9, 1947, 1-2 miles SE of White Deer, Texas. The storm moved northeastward, passing 5 mi. NW of Pampa at 6:05 p. m., 3 mi. NW of Canadian, through Glazier about 7:22 p. m., and through Higgins, about 7:45 p. m. It entered Ellis Co., Oklahoma, about 8:00. p. m., following a path which took it 4 mi. SE of Shattuck, 4 mi. NW of Arnett, 3 mi SE of Gage at 8:13 p, m., and 2 miles SE of Fargo. Moving into Woodward Co., the storm struck Woodward at 8:43 p. m. From Woodward the tornado continued its northeastward course through Woodward and Woods Counties, finally leaving Oklahoma about 10:00 p. m., not far from Hardtner, Kansas. Between 10:00 p.m. and 11:00 p. m., CST, the tornado passed through Barber Co., Kansas, and into Kingman Co., where it dissipated after causing some damage at St. Leo, 6 miles north of Nashville, Kansas. The rate of forward movement, 42 mi. per hr. The width of the path was 250 yds. near White Deer, 1.5 mi. at Higgins, 1.8 mi. at Woodward, and 1.0 mi. from Woods Co. to the point of dissipation.

The area affected by the tornado, during the period prior to the onset of the storm, was in the apex of the warm sector of a low pressure system centered in southern Colorado at 6:30 p.m. CST, April 9 the center moving to near Wichita by 12:30 a. m., April 10. On the 6:30 p. m. map, a cold front was indicated as extending SSW from the center along the western edge of the Texas Panhandle. By midnight the front had moved eastward, and was indicated as a cold front aloft through central Kansas, through Enid, Okla., just west of Fort Sill, and to a point south of Big Spring, Texas. Southerly, gusty surface winds, 30-40 mph, with low clouds were noted in the area. Winds aloft at Amarillo at 4:00 p. m. were southerly from 53 to 61 mph at levels from 4 to 7 thousand feet MSL.

Few reports were received from persons actually observing the tornado cloud due to fog, low clouds, and darkness. Observers saw the tornado as it formed near White Deer, and the Weather Bureau observer at Pampa noted the cloud when it was north of his station. The roar of the tornado as it passed 3-5 mi. to the south could be heard at the Gage station. Near Gage the funnel shaped cloud was seen during lightning flashes. The tornado caused marked dips in the barograph traces at both Pampa and Gage. The cooperative observer at Arnett, 4 mi. to the south at the storm path, heard the tornado roaring but was unable to see it because of the low clouds. Observers at Woodward reported hearing the tornado, comparing its sound to the roar of a fast freight or express train.

Loss of 1ife totaled 169 101 being killed in Oklahoma and 68 in Texas. According to the American Red Cross 95 persons lost their lives at Woodward and 6 in Ellis Co. In Glazier, 17 were killed and in Higgins 51. 782 injured were counted in Oklahoma and 198 in Texas. The Red Cross reported a total of 626 houses destroyed and 920 damaged as follows: Oklahoma, Woodward Co., 430 destroyed, 650 damaged Ellis Co., 52 destroyed, 133 damaged Woods Co., 25 destroyed, 20 damaged Texas: Lipscomb Co., 83 destroyed, 116 damaged Hemphill Co., 36 destroyed and 1 damaged.

The tornado struck Woodward in the early part of the night, when numerous families or members of families were away from home. Many returned to find their homes completely destroyed or badly damaged. Some families, like that of the local Weather Observer, escaped injury by taking refuge in their storm cellars. Miraculous escapes were many, while in other cases most if not all members of the family were either killed or injured. Confusion among separated families was rampant. Weather conditions added to the misery or the homeless and the task of relief workers as temperatures dropped into the 30s and 40s and cold rain changed to snow on the 12th and l3th.

Total property damage for the three States was estimated at $9,700,000. Losses to property were principally to buildings, although many livestock, fences, telegraph wires, automobiles, and farm machinery were destroyed. Damage estimates by County Agents in Oklahoma were: Woodward Co., $6,608,750 Ellis Co., 1,264,000 and Woods Co., $150,000 making the total loss in Oklahoma around 8,022,750. Total property damage was estimated at $1,505,000 in Texas, and $200,000 in Kansas.

Fires broke out in a number of places, and were difficult to control due to loss of water supply and lack of help. Persons were mostly concerned with taking care of the dead and injured. A downpour of rain for about 15 minutes shortly after the storm moved on helped suppress the fires at Woodward. The tornado destroyed the equipment for the local weather station, but the amount of rainfall was estimated by the observer at 0.50 inch. Rain and snow on the 12-13th added to damage of property remaining unprotected.

In Woodward over a hundred city blocks were demolished. Practically all of Higgins and Glazier were destroyed. For the entire storm between 4,000 and 4,000 buildings of all kinds, including homes, were either destroyed or damaged.


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