21 October 1941

21 October 1941

21 October 1941

October 1941

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Eastern Front

Marshal Zhukov appointed to command the outer defences of Moscow



October 21, 1941 – Petr Ginz

Petr Ginz was a very intelligent and creative teenager who lived in the city of Prague, Czechoslovakia at the time of the German occupation during World War II. According to Nazi racial concepts, Petr was half-Jewish because his father was Jewish but his mother was not. This meant that he would be sent to Theresienstadt when he turned sixteen years old. Before this, he was able to continue to live at home and attend school as he did before the Germans arrived. Although he experienced some of the legal restrictions faced by Jews, in many ways his days continued to follow the familiar patterns of home and school life typical for people his age.

On October 21st, 1941, Petr noted a change that occurred at his school. He wrote, “We now have Miss Lauscherova as our class teacher, right away she gave four children after school detentions and five written punishments (5x a certain fairly long article). Promising beginning!”

Observations about a new, tough teacher make Petr seem like any student from any other place or time. There is no indication in this diary entry that his life had changed very much under the Nazis. Of course, on other days, he had more to say about the changes, but this day reveals that the normal concerns of life continued to exert their pull, even as much worse times approached.

In some areas conquered by the Nazis, the destruction of Jewish communities progressed very rapidly, with the time between invasion and mass murder marked in mere days. In other places, like Prague, the Holocaust unfolded more slowly. In either case, the Nazis intended to accomplish the same final goal, the complete elimination of Jewish people from German-held lands.

Read more about Petr Ginz and his many accomplishments.

View the trailer for the documentary film project about Petr’s life entitled, “The Last Flight of Petr Ginz” .


October 14th, 1941 is a Tuesday. It is the 287th day of the year, and in the 42nd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 4th quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1941 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 10/14/1941, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 14/10/1941.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


DDoS attack that disrupted internet was largest of its kind in history, experts say

Dyn estimated that the attack had involved ‘100,000 malicious endpoints’, and the company said there had been reports of an extraordinary attack strength of 1.2 terabits (1,200 gigabytes) per second. Photograph: Alamy

Dyn estimated that the attack had involved ‘100,000 malicious endpoints’, and the company said there had been reports of an extraordinary attack strength of 1.2 terabits (1,200 gigabytes) per second. Photograph: Alamy

Last modified on Mon 15 May 2017 20.41 BST

The cyber-attack that brought down much of America’s internet last week was caused by a new weapon called the Mirai botnet and was likely the largest of its kind in history, experts said.

The victim was the servers of Dyn, a company that controls much of the internet’s domain name system (DNS) infrastructure. It was hit on 21 October and remained under sustained assault for most of the day, bringing down sites including Twitter, the Guardian, Netflix, Reddit, CNN and many others in Europe and the US.

The cause of the outage was a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack, in which a network of computers infected with special malware, known as a “botnet”, are coordinated into bombarding a server with traffic until it collapses under the strain.

What makes it interesting is that the attack was orchestrated using a weapon called the Mirai botnet. According to a blogpost by Dyn published on Wednesday, Mirai was the “primary source of malicious attack traffic”.

Unlike other botnets, which are typically made up of computers, the Mirai botnet is largely made up of so-called “internet of things” (IoT) devices such as digital cameras and DVR players.

Because it has so many internet-connected devices to choose from, attacks from Mirai are much larger than what most DDoS attacks could previously achieve. Dyn estimated that the attack had involved “100,000 malicious endpoints”, and the company, which is still investigating the attack, said there had been reports of an extraordinary attack strength of 1.2Tbps.

To put that into perspective, if those reports are true, that would make the 21 October attack roughly twice as powerful as any similar attack on record.

David Fidler, adjunct senior fellow for cybersecurity at the Council on Foreign Relations, said he couldn’t recall a DDoS attack even half as big as the one that hit Dyn.

Mirai was also used in an attack on the information security blog Krebs on Security, run by the former Washington Post journalist Brian Krebs, in September. That one topped out at 665 Gbps.

“We have a serious problem with the cyber insecurity of IoT devices and no real strategy to combat it,” Fidler said. “The IoT insecurity problem was exploited on this significant scale by a non-state group, according to initial reports from government agencies and other experts about who or what was responsible.

“Imagine what a well-resourced state actor could do with insecure IOT devices,” he added.

According to Joe Weiss, the managing partner at the cybersecurity firm Applied Control Solutions and the author of Protecting Industrial Control Systems from Electronic Threats, it is hard to know what Mirai could become. “A lot of these cyber-attacks start out as one particular type of attack and then they morph into something new or different,” he said. “A lot of this is modular software.

“I can’t speak for anyone else,” Weiss continued. “[But] I don’t know that we really understand what the endgame is.”


Improvements and fixes in the update

April 2021 updates

April 02 release

The following updates are available for Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation - Display – 20.100.8682

Intel(R) UHD Graphics 620 (15") – Display adapters

Improves graphics and system stability.

Intel Corporation - Display – 27.20.100.8682

Intel(R) HD Graphics 620 (13") – Display adapters

Improves graphics and system stability.

Surface ACPI Notify Driver – System devices

Improves the graphics driver update experience.

Intel - Extension - 1952.14.0.1470

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Extension

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel – SoftwareComponent - 1.62.321.1

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Software devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel - System - 2040.100.0.1029

Intel(R) Management Engine Interface - System devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface – System – 6.105.139.0

Surface Integration Service Device – System devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface - Firmware - 11.8.82.3838

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface – Firmware – 390.3681.768.0

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - SoftwareComponent - 11.0.6000.92

Realtek Hardware Support Application - Software components

Improves audio performance while streaming content.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - Media - 6.0.8936.1

Realtek High Definition Audio (SST) - Sound, video, and game controllers

Improves audio performance and resolves associated system bugcheck.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - Extension - 6.1.0.6

Realtek High Definition Audio (SST) Extension - no Device Manager notes

Improves integration between system services.

Surface Integration – System devices

Improves integration between system services.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

NVIDIA – Display - 27.21.14.5167

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 – Display adapters

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 – Display adapters

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 October 2018 Update, version 1809, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® AVStream Camera 2500

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® CSI2 Host Controller

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Imaging Signal Processor 2500

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Microsoft Camera Front

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Microsoft Camera IR

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Intel Corporation - System - 30.18305.6.12414

Intel® Microsoft Camera Rear

Improves the Windows Hello camera experience and resolves stability issues.

Surface - Firmware - 390.3279.768.0

Resolves an issue where the CPU will throttle down to .4GHz, and *improves the Battery Smart Charging reliability.

To learn more about Smart Charging, see Caring for your Surface battery.

The following updates are available for all Surface Book 2 devices running Windows 10 October 2018 Update, version 1809, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Surface Base 2 Firmware Update

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Surface - Firmware - 2.49.139.0

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Surface Integration Service Device - System

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during authentication scenarios.

Surface - Firmware - 182.2107.139.0

Surface System Aggregator - Firmware

* Improves Battery Smart Charging reliability.

Note: To learn more about Smart Charging, see Caring for your Surface battery.


Friday October 21, 1966

It was Friday, under the sign of Libra (see zodiac on October 21, 1966). The US president was Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat), the UK Prime Minister was Harold Wilson (Labour), Pope St Paul VI was leading the Catholic Church. Famous people born on this day include Tommy Tolles and Thomas Louis Tolles Jr. In that special week of October people in US were listening to Reach Out I'll Be There by Four Tops. In UK Distant Drums by Jim Reeves was in the top 5 hits. 10:30 P.M. Summer, directed by Jules Dassin, was one of the most viewed movie released in 1966 while All In The Family by Edwin O'Connor was one of the best selling book.
But much more happened that day: find out below..

You can also have a look at the year 1966, at October 21 across the years or at October 1966 calendar.


Digital images, program: Baseball Centennial Hoboken, New Jersey, June 19, 1946. Original scanned here was a photocopy of an original program which was a single folio, 7" x 10" high, [4] pp. The photocopy consisted of two 8-1/2" x 11" leaves with a single page image per side, [4]pp. Collation not indicated: images are placed in an order suggested by visible edges and fold marks.


More Extensive Shock During the 1880s

Setting the intellectually sick in offices permitted individuals from the overall population to disregard the issue. They didn’t see any individual who had a psychological sickness wandering the roads, and on the off chance that they set an individual in an organization like this, they might not have returned to visit or shared accounts of any visits they made. Individuals just appeared to vanish.

Quite a bit of that changed in the last part of the 1880s, because of crafted by an author named Nelly Bly. She consented to act like an intellectually sick lady on a task for a nearby paper, and she reported all that happened to her in a progression of articles, which were subsequently transformed into a book. Bly was a brilliant essayist, and her depictions were difficult to disregard.

“… I was unable to rest, so I lay in bed imagining to myself the abhorrences on the off chance that a fire should break out in the refuge. Each entryway is bolted independently and the windows are intensely banished so that departure is unimaginable. In the one structure alone there are, I think Dr. Ingram advised me, exactly 300 ladies. They are bolted, one to ten of every room. It is difficult to get out except if these entryways are unlocked.”[4]

As well as depicting the actual structure, Bly portrays how she suffered from the history of mental illness and the cruel medicines she acquired, including isolation, hair pulling, and the sky is the limit from there. Bly’s book was a sensation, and as per news reports,[5] the foundation where she resided was transformed because of her work. However, she additionally figured out how to layout what living in an office like this was similar to and how it didn’t appear to assist anybody with improving, and that may have extended the conversation individuals in this nation had about psychological sickness, and it might have prodded specialists to concoct revolutionary therapies that could entirely treat dysfunctional behaviors. If lodging them and detaching them didn’t work, they expected to discover something different that would.


Why Japan Attacked

In coordination with the Dutch and the British, the U.S. was running a very successful oil embargo against Japan. At that time the Japanese were advancing on China and French Indochina and, because they imported 90% of their oil, they became desperate. A lack of oil threatened to end all of their war efforts and as they were refusing America’s demands to stop fighting China, the Japanese decided that war with America was inevitable, their only hope was to attack first.

So when did America enter WW2? Officially after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, but the United States had been moving toward allianceship with Allied Powers for years.


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