26 October 1939

26 October 1939

26 October 1939

October 1939

> November

War at Sea

Soviet authorities order the release of the American steamer City of Flint

Wreck of a U-boat is washed up on the Goodwin Sands

Rattler (San Antonio, Tex.), Vol. 21, No. 3, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 26, 1939

Semi-monthly student newspaper from St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas that includes campus news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 20 x 15 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information


This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: The Rattler and was provided by the St. Mary's University Louis J. Blume Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 90 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.




Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

St. Mary's University Louis J. Blume Library

Founded in 1852 by Marianist brothers and priests, this is the first institution of higher learning in San Antonio and oldest Catholic university in the Southwest. Its mission is forming people in faith and educating leaders for the common good through community integrated liberal arts and professional education and academic excellence.

26 October 1939 - History

Aerial view of Moffett Field in 1938.

In 1939 the NACA established the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory at Moffett Field, located on the border of Sunnyvale and Mountain View, California. Through time, Moffett Field has hosted the Army Air Corps, Navy, NATS, MATS, NASA, and the National Guard. Since 1994 NASA has served as custodian of Moffett Field ("Moffett Federal Airfield").

The NASA Ames Historic Preservation Office coordinates with state and federal agencies on historic preservation issues related to historic places, historic landmarks and historic districts at Moffett Field. See a brief history of Moffett Field prepared by the office titled, "Moffett Field History: 1933 - Today".

The Moffett Field Historical Society and Museum preserves historical artifacts from the Navy and Army at Moffett Field. Its goal is to capture the heritage of Moffett Field and to pass this information on to future generations.

Central and Eastern Kentucky Weather

weather has been observed in kentucky since the 1700″s and daily observations of the weather have been taken in kentucky for over 150 years(1). Over the years the intrest in and the number of observers of the weather has increased here in kentucky. some examples are a book called ” the climate summary of the united states” published in 1933 and ” climate of kentucky” published in 1971 by the UK ag center. Now there is a weather station there in the AG department at UK that tracks the impacts of weather and climate on kentucky AG. There website is wwwagwx.ca.uky.edu and the leading meteorologist is the very friendly and knowledgeable Tom Priddy. In the 1970’s Kentucky also divided into 4 climate sectors western,central,bluegrass and eastern ( I.e the sectors in the palmar drought index). I could go into several examples of early observations and how weather pioners paved the way for the meteorology and climatology we know today in kentucky. However, I will spare you and go into the fun stuff.

The main topic of part 1 is kentucky’s extreme temperatures over time.

the first bout of exteme cold was in 1963

– the high was 50 on average across kentucky on January 23 ( i’m going to wear my shorts 50 for Jan 23. ) not really the temps plummeted almost 80 degrees by the next morning, most of southern ky including bowling green and somerset had huge drops but bradford won out with a low of -30*F the next morning. This same air mass produced a low of -34*F at bonnieville in Hart county.

– snowpack can also aid extreme cold that was the case on Jan 19,1994 where lows plummeted to -37*F in shelbyville and -30*F across most of KY.that -37*F is the lowest ever temp in ky.

– the winter of 1976-77 was very cold the average temp was 28.8*F for the entire winter brrr!

– what about the year without a summer in 1816, this was due to a volcano eurption in april of that year. ( volcanic eurptions may have a long term warming effect on the earth this would not be a good arguement to make in a global warming debate) BO Gaines (not a relative of mine) wrote a discription of that summer June- frost,ice,snow common july-frost on the 5th, ( how would like frost on your 4th BBQ’s) Aug- ice 1 inch thick

– summer of 1930 extreme heat and drought to aid heat waves. greensburg reached 114*F

in 1936 the temp rose above 90 95 days one even in october., hopkinsville got over 100 14 straight days.

1999 was a modern example of a unsually hot summer, paducah’s hottest july on record.

part 3 floods/severe weather/ drought

– floods in the 1970’s led to the addtion of a new national weather service in jackson


The following tables have been prepared as aids in comparing provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (redesignated the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986 , 100 Stat. 2095) with provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. No inferences, implications, or presumptions of legislative construction or intent are to be drawn or made by reason of such tables.

Citations to “R.A.” refer to the sections of earlier Revenue Acts.

115, 526, 892, 893, 911, 912, 933, 943

Chapter 1, Subchapter G, Part III

6012(b), 6015, 6064, 6065, 6073(a), (c), 6081(a), 6091(b), 6103, 6161(a)

6015(g), 6073(b), (d), (e), 6091(b), 6153(b), (d), (e)

1501–1505, 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(2), 6503(a)(2)

1461, 6011(a), 6072(a), 6091(b), 6151(a)

443, 6155(a), 6601(a), 6658, 6851, 7101

6042, 6043, 6044, 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)

6045, 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)

6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 7001(a), 7231

6036, 6155(a), 6161(c), 6503(b), 6871, 6872, 6873

Chapter 1, Subchapter G, Part III

7201, 7202, 7203, 7207, 7269, 7343

1494, 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 6151(a)

6011(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 6302(b)

6011(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 6151(a)

4301, 4302, 4304, 4321, 4322, 4323, 4341, 4342, 4343, 4344, 4351, 4352, 4353, 4381

4891, 4892, 4894, 4895, 4896, 7701(a)(1)

4383, 4454, 4893, 6201(a)(2), 6801(a), (b)

4812, 4813, 4816, 4818, 7235(e), 7265(b), (c)

6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2)

6011(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2), 6151(a)

6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2)

4561, 4562, 4571, 4572, 4581, 4582

6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2)

5001(a)(4) (Rev. See 5001(a)(10)), 5007(c) (Rev. See 7652, 7805)

5272(a) (Rev. See 5173(a), (d)), 5281(a) (Rev. See 5201(a))

5273(a) (Rev. See 5178(a)), 5627 (Rev. See 5687))

5628 (Rev. See 5601(a)(10), 5687)

5009(a) (Rev. See 5205(c)(1), (f), 5206(c)), 5010(a) (Rev. See 5205(e))

5642 (Rev. See 5604(a)(1), (4)–(6), (10), (12)–(15), (b))

5634 (Rev. See 5601(a)(13), 5615(7))

5174(a) (Rev. See 5179(a), 5505(d)), 5601 (Rev. See 5505(i), 5601(a)(1), 5615(1))

5175(a) (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172), 5271 (Rev. See 5171(a), (c), 5172, 5178(a)(1)(A), (4)(B)–(D)), 5603 (Rev. See 5601(a)(2), (3))

5282 (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(a), 5204(a), (c), 5205(d), 5206(c), 5251)

5176(a), (c) (Rev. See 5173(a), (b), 5176(a)), 5177(c) (Rev. See 5173(b)(1), 5551(c)), 5604 (Rev. See 5601(a)(4), (5), 5615(3))

5171 (Rev. See 5178(a)(1)(B), (b), (c)(2), 5505(b), 5601(a)(6)), 5607 (Rev. See 5505(i), 5601(a)(6))

5173(b) (Rev. See 5178(a)(2)(B), 5202(b)), 5192(b) (Rev. See 5202(b)), 5193(a) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(f), 5204(a), 5205(b), 5206(a), (c), 5211)

5173(a) (Rev. See 5178(a)(1)(A), (2)(C)), 5618 (Rev. See 5687)

5215 (Rev. See 5201(c), 5312(a), (c), 5373(a), 5562)

5196(a) (Rev. See 5203(a)), 5617 (Rev. See 5687)

5196(b) (Rev. See 5203(b)), 5616 (Rev. See 5687)

5196(c) (Rev. See 5203(c)), 5283 (Rev. See 5203(c), (d)), 5615 (Rev. See 5203(c), (e), 5687)

5196(d) (Rev. See 5203(d)), 5283 (Rev. See 5203(c), (d))

5116(a) (Rev. See 5115), 5180(a), 5274(a) (Rev. See 5180), 5681

5172 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), 5601(a)(2), (4))

5606 (Rev. See 5601(a)(4), 5602, 5615(3))

5216(a) (Rev. See 5222(a)(1), (2)(D), 5501, 5502(a), 5503, 5504(a), (b), 5505(a), (c), 5601(a)(7), (8), (9)(A)), 5608(a), (b) (Rev. See 5601(a)(7), (8), (9)(A), (12), 5615(4))

5195(a) (Rev. See 5201(c)), 5613 (Rev. See 5687)

5192(c) (Rev. See 5202(a), (b)), 5612 (Rev. See 5687)

5196(e) (Rev. See 5203(b), (c)), 5619 (Rev. See 5687)

5007(e)(1) (Rev. See 5004(b)(1), 5006(a)(3))

5191(a) (Rev. See 5221(a)), 5650 (Rev. See 5601(a)(14), 5615(3))

5114(a) (Rev. See 5114(a)(1), 5146(a)), 5285(b) (Rev. See 5207(c)), 5621 (Rev. See 5603)

5197(a)(2) (Rev. See 5207(a)), 5621 (Rev. See 5603)

5282(b) (Rev. See 5202(a), 5204(a), (c), 5205(d), 5206(c))

5010(c) (Rev. See 5205(g)), 5636 (Rev. See 5604(a)(2), (3), (7)–(9), (17), 7301)

5638 (Rev. See 5604(a)(19), 5613, 7301, 7302)

5195(b) (Rev. See 5201(c)), 5614 (Rev. See 5687, 7301)

5214(a) (Rev. See 5301(a)), 5641 (Rev. See 5606, 5613, 7301, 7302, 7321–7323)

5231 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (B), (3)(A), (B)), 5241(b) (Rev. See 5202(a), (c), (d))

5231 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (B), (3)(A), (B)), 5241(a) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(a), (c))

5231 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (B), (3)(A), (B)), 5246(a) (Rev. See 5212)

5631 (Rev. See 5601(a)(12), 5615(6), 5687)

5193(a) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(f), 5204(a), 5205(b), 5206(a), (c), 5211)

5009(c), 5193(b) (Rev. See 5206(a), 5214(a)(4))

5006(a) (Rev. See 5006(a)(1), (2), 5008(c))

5232(a) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), 5006(a)(2), 5173(a), (c)(1))

5232(a), (c) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), 5006(a)(2), 5173(a), (c)(1), 5176(a), (b))

5194(a) (Rev. See 5211(a), 5212, 5213)

5025(d), 5194(f) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), 5212, 5223(a), (d))

5194(g) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5204(a), 5212)

5247(a) (Rev. See 5175(a), 5206(a), 5214(a)(4))

5009(b) (Rev. See 5205(i)(4)), 5247(b)

5006(a) (Rev. See 5006(a)(1), (2), 5008(c))

5011(a)(1)(B) (Rev. See 5008(a)(1)(B)), 5011(b) (Rev. See 5008(b)(1))

5011(a)(1)(B), (2) (Rev. See 5008(a)(1)(B), (2))

5243(a) (Rev. See 5171, 5172, 5178(a)(3), (4)(A), 5233(a), (b))

5243(a), (b) (Rev. See 5171, 5172, 5178(a)(3), (4)(A), 5202(g), 5233(a), (b))

5243(e) (Rev. See 5175, 5206(c), 5214(a)(4))

5643 (Rev. See 5601(a)(12), 5604(a)(11), (12), (16), 5615(6), 5687)

5243(b) (Rev. See 5202(g), 5233(b))

5632 (Rev. See 5601(a)(12), 5615(6))

5001(a)(5), (9) (Rev. See 5001(a)(4), (8)), 5041(a), 5041(b), 5042(a)(2), 5362, 5368(b)

5354, 5362, 5373(b)(1), 5373(b)(3), 5391

5025(f) (Rev. See 5025(g)), 5373(a), 5381, 5382(a), (b)(1), (2), 5383(a), (b)(3), (4), 5392

5351, 5354, 5356, 5368(a), (b), 5369

5331(a) (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), (c), 5178(a)(5), 5202(e), 5207(a), (c), (d), 5214(a), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d), 5275)

5331(b), (c) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5273(a), (b)(1), (2), (d))

5647 (Rev. See 5273(b)(1), (2), (d), 5601(a)(12), 5607, 5615(6))

5301 (See 5171(a), (b)(1), 5172, 5173(a), (b))

5302 (Rev. See 5171(a), (b)(1), 5172, 5173(a), (c), 5178(a)(3)(A), (B), 5201(a), 5206(a))

5303 (Rev. See 5171(a), (b)(1), 5172, 5173(a), (c), 5178(a)(5), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d))

5306 (Rev. See 5025(d), (e)(1), 5103, 5113(a), 5173(c), 5201(a), (c), 5204(c), 5243(a)(1)(A), 5306), 5312(c)

5309 (Rev. See 5222(b)), 5412 (Rev. See 5222(b), 5412)

5305 (Rev. See 5171, 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (5), 5201(a), (b), 5207(a), (c), (d), 5211, 5223(a), 5235, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d), 5275, 5312(b))

5307 (Rev. See 5178(a)(2)(A), 5201(a))

5310(a) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d))

5310(a) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d))

5004(b) (Rev. See 5004(a)(1), (b)(1)), 5005(c) (Rev. See 5005(a), (b)(1), (c)(1))

5007(d) (Rev. See 5007(a)(1)), 5689

5304(a) (Rev. See 5171(b)(1), 5271(a), (b), (c), (e)(1), (f), 5272(a))

5686(b) (Rev. See 5505(i), 5686(a)), 7302

5001(a)(8) (Rev. See 5001(a)(9)), 5007(d) (Rev. See 5007(a)(1)), 5311 (Rev. See 5232)

5055 (Rev. See 5054(a)(1), (2), (c), (d))

5055 (Rev. See 5054(a)(1), (2), (c), (d))

5367, 5555(a) (Rev. See 5207(b)–(d))

5684 (Rev. See 5687 and Subtitle F)

5217(a) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), (2), 5025(d), (e)(2), 5212, 5223(a), 5234(b))

4754, 6001, 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)

5121(c) (Rev. See 5121(c), 5122(c))

5691 (Rev. See 5607, 5613, 5615, 5661(a), 5671, 5673, 5676(4), 5683, 7301, 7301(a), 7302)

5112(a) (Rev. See 5111(a), 5112(b))

5122(a) (Rev. See 5121(a)(1), 5122(a))

5111 (Rev. See 5111(a), (b), 5112(b), (c))

5143(a) (Rev. See Subtitle F), 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b), 6151(a)

5146 (Rev. See 6806(a), 7273(a)), 6806(a)

4903, 5144(c) (Rev. See 5113(a), 5143(c)(1)–(3))

4905, 5144 (Rev. See 5113(a) 5143), 7011(b)

6155(a), 6201(a)(2)(A), 6601(c)(4), 6659

4081, 4082, 4083, 4101, 4102, 7101, 7232

6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b), 6151(a)

6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081, 6091(b), 6151(a)

4291, 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b), 6151(a), 6161(a)

4291, 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6091(b), 6151(a)

4271, 4291, 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6091(b), 6151(a)

4331, 4332, 4341, 4342, 4343, 4344, 4351–4353

4501, 6011(a), 6071, 6091(b), 6151(a)

6011(a), 6065(a), 6081(a), 6091(a), (b)(1), (2)

6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), (b)(1), (2), 7805(a)

3905, 3906, 3910, 3911, 3915, 3916

101 except (12) and last par. 165(a), 421

169, second sentence of 170

231(b), (c) 232(a), (b) 233, 234, 235(a)

811(f) 403(d)(2) R.A. 1942 2, P.L. 635 (80th Cong.)

1000(c) 452(b)(2) R.A. 1942 2, P.L. 635 (80th Cong.)

2700(b)(2), 3407 706, P.L. 911 (81st Cong.)

1715(a), 1851, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c)

2550(c)(1), (2) 2552(b), 2590(c), 2592(b)

2800(a)(1), (4), (6), (c) 3030(a)(1) 3111 3125(a) 3182(b)

2800(a)(1), (b)(2), (f) 2879(b) 2880, 2900(a)

2800(f), (a)(3), (4) 2846(a), 2847(a) 3112(b) 3125(a)

2800(a)(5) 2801(c)(2), (e) 2883(e), 3036(a), 3250(h), (i) 3254(g)

3277, 3278, 3279, 3280(a), 3283

2903(a), (f), (g) 2904, 2905, 2910, 2911

3030(a)(1), 3031(a), 3037, 3038 19 U.S.C. 81(c), 1309, 1311

3031, 3032, 3033, 3036, 3037(a)

2805(a)–(b) 3118, 3173(d), 63 Stat. 377 et seq.

2040, 2101, 2111(f) 2130(d) 2135(a)(1), (2), (3) 2197(b) 2130(d)

2100, 2102, 2103(a)(1), 2111, 2112(a)(1), 2130(a), (b), (c)

2018, 2037, 2039(b)(1), 2056, 2194

2130(a), (b), (c) 2151(a), (c) 2155(a), 2156, 2160(a)–(e), (g), (i) 2161(a), (c), (e)–(g) 2162(a)(2), (4), (b) 2170(a)(2), (4), (b) 2171(a), (b)(2) 2172, 2173(a), 2174, 2176(a)(2), (3) 2180(a), (d)–(f)

51, 54(a), (b) 821(d), 1007(a), (b) 1720, 1835, 1928(b), 2302, 2303, 2322(c), 2324, 2352, 2555, 2569(d), 2594(a), 2653(b), 2709, 2724, 3220(c), 3233(a), 3603

47(a), 51, 143(c), 215(a), 217, 235, 251(g), 1420(c), 1530(b), 1604(a), 1624, 1700 (c)(2), (d)(2), (e)(2) 1716(a), 1852(a), 1902(a)(1), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2701, 3272(a), 3310(a), (b), (f)(1), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(a), 3611(a)(1)

51(a), 52(a), 142(a)(2), (3), (4) 217(b), 235(b)

142(a), (b), 148(a), (d), (e) 149, 169(f), 187, 233, 821(a), 864(a), 1006(a), 1604(a), 1716(a), 1852(a), 1902(a)(1), 2403(a), 2471, 2555(a), (c) 2701, 3233(a), 3272(a), 3330, 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3604(b), 3611(a), (c), 3779(b), 3780(a), 3809(c)

141(b), 147(a), 148(a), (b), (c), (e) 149, 150, 153(a), (b), 821(b), 864(b), 874(b)(3), 1253(a), 1420(c), 1530(b), 1604(a), 1716(b), 1852(a), 1902(a)(1), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2555(b), (c), 2701, 2734(e), 3233(a), 3272(a), 3310(a), (f)(1) 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(a), 3604(a), 3611(b), (c) 3779(b), 3780(a), 3791(a)

53(a)(2), 58(e), 141(b), 147(a), 148(a), (b), (c), (e) 149, 150, 153(a), (b) 821(b), 864(b), 874(b)(3), 1253(a), 1420(c), 1530(b), 1604(b), 1625(c), 1633(c), 1716(b), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2555(c)(1), 2701, 3233(a), 3272(a), 3310(f)(1), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(e), 3475(d), 3611(a)(1), 3634, 3779(b), 3791(a)

147(a), 148(b), (c), (d), 149, 150, 153(a), (b), 820, 874(b)(3), 1253(a), 1420(c), 1530(b), 2555(c)(1), 2734(e), 3233(a), 3604(a), 3611(a)(1), (c) 3779(a), 3780(a), 3791(a)

53(b)(1), 58(d)(2), 60(b), 143(c), 821(c), 864(c), 1006(b), 1604(a), 1716(c), 1852(b), 1902(a)(2), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2701, 3272(a), 3291(a), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(c), 3611(a)(1), (c) 3791(a)

53(b)(2), 141(b), 143(c), 1604(a), 1716(c), 1852(b), 1902(a)(2), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2701, 3272(a), 3291(a), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(c), 3611(a)(1), (c) 3791(a)

56(a), 143(c), (h) 144, 218(a), 236(a), 822(a)(1), 1008(a), 1253(a), 1530(b), 1715(b), (c) 1853(a), (b) 1902(a)(3), (b) 2403(b), 2451(a), (b) 2472, 2702(a), 3220, 3230, 3271(b), 3272(a), 3448(a), (b) 3461, 3467(b), 3469(b), 3470, 3475(c), 3491(a), (c)

22(d)(6)(F), 51(f)(2), 131(c), 146(a), 272(b), (c) 273(a), (g), (i) 274(b), 292(a), 871(b), (c), (i) 872(a), (g), (i) 874(b)(3), 891, 1012(b), (c) 1013(a), (g), (i) 1015(b), 1021, 1117(g), 1605(c), 3310(d), 3311, 3660(a), 3779(h)

56(c), 58(e), 1008(b), 1605(d), 3467(b), 3469(e), 3475(d)

56(c)(2), 272(j), 822(a)(2), 871(h), 1012(i)

1809(b)(2), 2351(c)(2), 2651(c)(2), 3311

1420(c), 1719, 2550(c), 2708, 3281, 3282

56(g), 1008(d), 1420(d), 1530(d), 1605(e), 3658

1715(d), 2407(b), 2452(b), 3443(a)(3)(B), (b), (d)

275(a), 874(a), 1016(a), 1635(a), 3312(a)

276(a), 874(b)(1), 1016(b)(1), 1635(b), 3312(b)

276(a), 874(b)(1), 1016(b)(1), 1635(b), 3312(b)

276(c), 874(b)(2), 1016(b)(2), 1635(d), 3312(d)

322(b)(1), 910, 1027(b)(1), 1636(a)(1), 3313

322(b)(1), 910, 1027(b)(1), 1636(a)(1), 3313

322(b)(2), 910, 1027(b)(2), 1636(a)(2), 3313

146(f), 292(a), (c), (d) 294(a)(1), (2), (b), (c) 295, 296, 297, 298, 890(a), (b), 891, 892, 893(a)(1), (2) (b)(1), (2), (3), (4) 925, 1020(a), (b), 1021, 1022, 1023(a)(1), (2) (b)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), 1420(b), 1530(c), 1605(b), 1717, 1853(c), 2403(b), 2451(b), 2475, 2706, 3310(c), 3448(b), 3470, 3495, 3655(b), 3779(i), 3794

294(a)(2), 296, 893(a)(2), (b)(3) 1023(a)(2), (b)(3)

292(a), 294(b), 295, 296, 298, 890(a), (b), 891, 893(a), (b), 1020(a), (b), 1021, 1023(a), (b), 1420(b), 1530(c), 1605(b), 1717, 1853(c), 2403(b), 2451(b), 2475, 2706, 3310(c), (d), 3448(b), 3470, 3495, 3655(b), 3779(i)

51(g)(6)(B), 293(b), 871(i), 1019(b), 3612(d)(2)

51(g)(6), 291, 293, 871(i), 1019, 1117(g), 1634(b), 1718(c), 1821(a)(3), 3310(a)–(e), 3311, 3655(a)(b)

1718(c), 1821(a)(3), 2557(b)(4), 2707(a)

1718(d), 1821(a)(4), 2557(b)(8), 2707(d)

1718(c), 1821(a)(3), 2557(b)(4), 2707(a)

1809(b)(1), 2652(a), 3273(a), 3300(a), 3901(a)(2)

273(f), (h) 872(f), (h) 1013(f), (h) 3660(b)

44(d), 56(c)(2), 112(b)(6)(D), 131(c), 146(b), 272(j), 273(f), 822(a)(2), 871(h), 872(f), 926, 1012(i), 1013(f), 1145, 1818(a), 2302(e), 2322(e), 2352(e), 2474, 2569(b), 2653(d), 3360(d)(2)(B), 3412(d), 3413, 3660(b), 3722(c), 3724(c), 3943, 3992, 4010, and 6 U.S.C. 15

145(a), (b), 153(d), 340, 894(b)(2)(B), (C) 937, 1024(a), (b) 1718(a), (b) 1821(a)(1), (2), (b)(4) 2557(b)(2), (b)(3) 2656(f), 2707(b), 2707(c), 3604(c)

145(b), 894(b)(2)(C), 1718(b), 1821(a)(2), 2557(b)(3), 2707(c)

145(a), 153(d), 340, 894(b)(2)(B), 937, 1024(a), 1718(a), 1821(a)(1), 2557(b)(2), 2707(b), 3604(c)

2558(a), (b) 2571, 2598(a), (b), (c) 3253, 3321(b)(1), 3720(a)(1)

145(d), 894(b)(2)(D), 1718(d), 1821(a)(4), 2557(b)(8), 2707(d), 3228, 3710(c), 3793(b)(2)

2302(c), 2322(c), 2352(c), 2569(d)(4), 2653(b)

1426(f), 1532(i), 1607(k), 1805, 1931(b), 2733(i), 3228(a), 3238(a), 3507(a), 3797(a)(1)

108 R.A. 1941 109 R.A. 1942 136 R.A. 1943 214 R.A. 1950 615 R.A. 1951 See 22(b)(7)

An Act to revise the internal revenue laws of the United States

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That

(1) The provisions of this Act set forth under the heading “Internal Revenue Title” may be cited as the “Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]”.

(2) The Internal Revenue Code enacted on February 10, 1939 , as amended, may be cited as the “Internal Revenue Code of 1939”.

This Act shall be published as volume 68A of the United States Statutes at Large, with a comprehensive table of contents and an appendix but without an index or marginal references. The date of enactment, bill number, public law number, and chapter number, shall be printed as a headnote.

For saving provisions, effective date provisions, and other related provisions, see chapter 80 (sec. 7801 and following) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(d) Enactment of Internal Revenue Title into law

The Internal Revenue Title referred to in subsection (a)(1) is as follows: * * *.

1986—Subsecs. (a)(1), (c). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, § 1531(b)(3), Aug. 5, 1997 , 111 Stat. 1085, added subtitle K heading “Group health plan requirements” and struck out former subtitle K heading “Group health plan portability, access, and renewability requirements”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–191, title IV, § 401(b), Aug. 21, 1996 , 110 Stat. 2082, added subtitle K heading “Group health plan portability, access, and renewability requirements”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§ 307(b)(2), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982 , 96 Stat. 590, 591, provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983 , subtitle C heading is amended to read “Employment taxes and collection of income tax at source”. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983 , 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§ 301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983 , and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1981—Pub. L. 97–119, title I, § 103(c)(2), Dec. 29, 1981 , 95 Stat. 1638, added subtitle I heading “Trust Fund Code”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, § 1907(b)(2), Oct. 4, 1976 , 90 Stat. 1836, substituted in subtitle G heading “The Joint Committee on Taxation” for “The Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–443, title IV, § 408(a), Oct. 15, 1974 , 88 Stat. 1297, added subtitle H heading “Financing of Presidential election campaigns”.

This Table of Contents is inserted for the convenience of users and was not enacted as part of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Today in Holocaust History

Action T4 was a program, also called Euthanasia Program, in Nazi Germany spanning October 1939 until August 1941, during which physicians killed 70,273 people specified as suffering patients - judged incurably sick by critical medical examination, and long-term inmates of mental asylums who may appear incurable.

The Nuremberg Trials found evidence that German physicians continued the extermination of patients after October 1941 and evidence that, in total, about 275,000 people were killed under T4.

The killing methods employed lethal injections, gas chambers and cremation or simple starvation.

The codename T4 was an abbreviation of "Tiergartenstraße 4", the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten which was the headquarters of the General Foundation for Welfare and Institutional Care. This villa no longer exists, but a plaque set in the pavement on Tiergartenstraße marks its location.

It is argued by some scholars that the T4 program developed from the Nazi Party's policy of "racial hygiene", the belief that the German people needed to be "cleansed" of "racially unsound" elements, which included people with disabilities. According to this view, the euthanasia program represents an evolution in policy toward the later Holocaust of the Jews of Europe: the historian Ian Kershaw has called it "a vital step in the descent into modern barbarism"

It may be noted however that racial hygienist ideas were far from unique to the Nazi movement. The ideas of social Darwinism were widespread in all western countries in the early 20th century, and the eugenics movement had many followers among educated people, being particularly strong in the United States. The idea of sterilising those carrying hereditary defects or exhibiting what was thought to be hereditary anti-social behaviour was widely accepted, and was put into law in the United States, Sweden, Switzerland and other countries. Between 1935 and 1975, for example, 63,000 people were sterilised on eugenic grounds in Sweden.

long before Action T4, the Nazi regime began to implement "racial hygienist" policies as soon as it came to power. The July 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" prescribed compulsory sterilisation for people with a range of conditions thought to be hereditary such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, Huntington's chorea and "imbecility". Sterilisation was also mandated for chronic alcoholism and other forms of social deviance. This law was administered by the Interior Ministry under Wilhelm Frick through special Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte), which examined the inmates of nursing homes, asylums, prisons, aged care homes and special schools to select those to be sterilised.

It is estimated that 360,000 people were sterilised under this law between 1933 and 1939. After 1937 the acute shortage of labour in Germany arising from the crash rearmament program meant that anyone capable of work was deemed to be "useful" and was exempted from the law, and the rate of sterilisation declined.

Hitler and his helpers were aware from the start that a program of killing large numbers of Germans with disabilities would be unpopular with the German public.

It was impossible to keep the T4 program secret, given that thousands of doctors, nurses (including Catholic nuns) and administrators were involved in it, and given that the majority of those killed had families who were actively concerned about their welfare. Despite the strictest orders to maintain secrecy, some of the staff at the killing centres talked about what was going on there. In some cases families could tell that the causes of death notified were false, e.g. when a patient was claimed to have died of appendicitis, even though his appendix had been surgically removed some years earlier. In other cases several families in the same town would receive death certificates on the same day. In the towns where the killing centres were located, many people saw the inmates arrive in buses, saw the smoke from the crematoria chimneys, noticed that no bus-loads of inmates ever left the killing centres, and drew the correct conclusion.

The Catholic Church, which since 1933 had pursued a policy of avoiding confrontation with the Nazi regime in the hope of preserving its core institutions intact, became increasingly unable to keep silent in the face of mounting evidence about the killing of inmates of hospitals and asylums. Leading Catholic churchmen, led by Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber of Munich, wrote privately to the government protesting against the policy. In July 1941 the Church broke its silence when a pastoral letter from the bishops was read out in all churches, declaring that it was wrong to kill (except in self-defence or in a morally justified war). This emboldened Catholics to make more outspoken protests.

By August the protests had spread to Bavaria and Hitler himself was jeered by an angry crowd at Hof – the only time he was opposed in public during his 12 years of rule. Despite his private fury, Hitler knew that he could not afford a confrontation with the Church at a time when Germany was engaged in a life-and-death war, a belief which was reinforced by the advice of Goebbels, Martin Bormann, head of the Party Chancellery, and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS.

On 24 August 1941 Hitler ordered the cancellation of the T4 program, and also issued strict instructions to the Gauleiters that there were to be no further provocations of the churches for the duration of the war.

The invasion of the Soviet Union in June had opened up new opportunities for the T4 personnel, who were soon transferred to the east to begin work on a vastly greater program of killing: the "final solution of the Jewish question". But the winding up of the T4 program did not bring the killing of people with disabilities to an end, although from the end of 1941 the killing became less systematic. But the methods reverted to those employed before the gas chambers were employed: lethal injection, or simple starvation

Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License)

Marriage License Applications: 1903-2003 (Request Form)

The Denver Clerk and Recorder’s Office Denver County marriage license applications from 1903-2003 are housed at the Denver Public Library. All of these records are restricted for privacy by Colorado state law (C.R.S. 24-72) and require a photo ID and proof of relationship to those named in the record for access.

Please fill out the Request Form for Records of the Clerk and Recorder of the City and County of Denver.

To find marriage dates & license numbers, check the resources below:

MyHeritage (Search for marriages from 1970s - present)

Some Feats

Given the range of countries that we have gathered information for we can answer some questions about number ones. If we restrict ourselves to the English speaking world that we have good charts for (that is the USA, UK, Australia, Canada and Ireland) then only two artists had number ones simultaneously across all those charts before 1990: The Beatles with "I Feel Fine" from Dec 1964 to Jan 1965 and John Lennon in Jan 1981. Three artists managed this feat in the 1990s: Bryan Adams in Aug 1991 - Sep 1991 Whitney Houston in Dec 1992 - Jan 1993 and Celine Dion in Mar 1998.

Looking at the proportion of time that each artist was number one in at least one of our target countries gives yet another measure of the relative success that various acts enjoyed. If we work out what proportion of each decade they spent in the number one song slot we get this listing:

# Artist 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s
1 The Beatles 35.6% 1.7%
2 Bing Crosby 31.6% 2.3%
3 Elvis Presley 11.2% 19.7% 2.6%
4 Madonna 12.2% 6.9%
5 Abba 13.6% 1.9%
6 Perry Como 7.0% 10.4% 0.6%
7 Glenn Miller 13.2%
8 Mariah Carey 12.8%
9 Bee Gees 2.5% 10.8% 0.9%
10 Phil Collins 9.6% 2.8%
11 The Rolling Stones 8.1% 3.6% 1.3% 0.2%
12 Rod Stewart 8.6% 0.7% 1.9%
13 Elton John 5.6% 1.1% 6.5%
14 Michael Jackson 1.9% 5.9% 3.8%
15 Bryan Adams 0.4% 8.4%
16 The Ink Spots 8.3%
17 U2 4.2% 5.9%
18 Boyz II Men 7.7%
19 Celine Dion 7.4%
20 Wings 7.4%
21 Cliff Richard 2.1% 5.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.8%
22 Dinah Shore 6.7% 1.0%
23 Johnnie Ray 6.7%
24 Whitney Houston 4.5% 4.4%
25 Spice Girls 6.7%
26 Nat King Cole 1.5% 5.8% 0.2%
27 Cher 1.7% 1.1% 4.9%
28 Jimmy Dorsey 6.1%
29 Vaughn Monroe 5.9%
30 Take That 5.8%

The 1940s and 1950s are biased in two different ways, firstly there are fewer charts (so acts are liable to spend less time at number one) and secondly the charts that existed were less dynamic (so acts spent longer in the top slot). We have assumed these factors just about cancel each other out. Only Cliff Richard and The Rolling Stones have managed to extend beyond 3 decades.

Another interesting metric is to look at how long a particular artist managed to remain at number one in at least one of these countries. This shows artists that were globally popular with multiple songs released in quick succession. Here are all the artists that managed at least 75 days of being number one somewhere:

# Artist Days
1 Phil Collins 259
2 Bing Crosby 212
3 The Beatles 196
4 Glenn Miller 184
5 Dinah Shore 154
6 Elvis Presley 140
7 Sinead O'Connor 135
8 Boyz II Men 126
9 Elton John 125
10 Bryan Adams 121
11 Survivor 107
12 Stevie Wonder 99
13 Abba 98
13 Los Del Rio 98
13 Meat Loaf 98
13 Whitney Houston 98
17 Spice Girls 97
18 Britney Spears 92
19 Coolio 91
19 Doris Day 91
19 Perry Como 91
22 John Travolta & Olivia Newton-John 90
23 Starsound 86
23 Wings 86
25 P Diddy & Faith Evans 85
26 George Harrison 84
26 Harry James 84
26 Jimmy Dorsey 84
26 Johnnie Ray 84
36 Mariah Carey 84
31 Michael Jackson 83
32 Tony Orlando & Dawn 81
33 Lou Bega 78
34 Bill Haley & His Comets 77
34 The Rolling Stones 77
34 Vaughn Monroe 77
37 Nancy Sinatra 75

The Beatles and Bing Crosby both managed more than 100 day stints twice (The Beatles narrowly missed out on managing three 100 stretches because of a two day gap in Mar 1966.

History Without Hitler?

A hundred years ago this week, in the early morning hours of Thursday, Oct. 29, 1914, the near-death of a frontline German soldier almost changed the course of 20th century history. That morning, Adolf Hitler, along with 3,000 other recruits of the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, was rousted from his bivouac and hard-marched through beet fields and larch forests toward the British lines near the Ypres salient in southern Belgium.

The 16th RIR took casualties as it advanced. When two flanking German regiments, one Saxon and one Württemberg, mistook the Bavarians’ gray-green caps for British uniforms, the 16th RIR was butchered by friendly fire.

“From our entire company only one other was left besides me,” the 26-year-old recruit wrote to a friend in Munich afterward. “Finally he fell as well. A bullet tore off my entire coat sleeve but miraculously I remained healthy and whole.” It was Hitler’s first taste of battle.

Hitler barely escaped death again three weeks later when he and three other soldiers were ordered to leave a crowded tent where Iron Crosses were being awarded.

“We were outside for barely five minutes when a shell struck the tent,” Hitler wrote, “It was the most horrifying moment of my life.” He spent the next four years at the front dodging death, once taking shrapnel in the leg, once blinded by gas. It was one death too few in a war that claimed far too many.

But what if Hitler had fallen on that Thursday morning a century ago this week, or on any other day during those next four years of frontline fighting? How different might the 20th century have looked? How different might the course of German history have been? What utility is there in such “counterfactual history,” which the eminent British historian Richard Evans recently decried as misguided and futile?

Given the perilous political circumstances in some regions of our world today, understanding what could have been, may in fact help us better understand what might be.

In 1919, Hitler found himself in a country transitioning from an oppressive but stable monarchy to a fledgling constitutional democracy, a dynamic not unfamiliar to our post-Arab Spring world where countries like Tunisia, Egypt and Syria have edged toward Western-style democracy with dramatically uneven experiences and occasionally horrifying results.

The first German experiment with democracy, the Weimar Republic, tottered similarly between promise and peril, undergirded by a well-crafted Constitution, but savaged by political extremists on the left and the right. In Munich, Bolsheviks established the short-lived and chaotic Soviet Republic of Bavaria. Right-wing putschists briefly seized power in Berlin. Local militia called Freikorps, or Free Corps, roamed the countryside, killing with impunity. Germans slaughtered Germans in the streets.

“How are such things possible in a country that was once so orderly, that belonged to the leading cultural nations of our era, and that according to its Constitution is a free and democratic republic?” Emil Gumbel, a statistician and former colleague of Albert Einstein wondered in his 1922 study “Four Years of Political Murder.”

Gumbel blamed the surge in violence on the “psychological brutalization” of the recent war, as well as on a news media that glorified political killings, and a legal system that turned a blind eye to the public slaughter.

Paul von Hindenburg, a former field marshal and irredentist monarchist who was elected president in 1925, identified a more fundamental problem. A year into his second term, he decided that democratic rule did not really correspond to “the true needs of our people.” Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor in January 1933, with the expectation that the Nazi leader would crush the Communist threat, which Hitler did, that he would dismantle the democratic multiparty system, which he did, and that he would place Germany back on the road to monarchy.

For Hindenburg, the Nazis represented little more than a fascist means to a monarchical end. The aging president died in August 1934, leaving Germany in the hands of a fascist dictator.

“The Führer was a man who was possible in Germany only at that very moment,” Hans Frank observed shortly before he was hanged at Nuremberg for complicity in Nazi crimes. “Had he come, let us say, 10 years later, when the republic was firmly established, it would have been impossible for him. And if he had come 10 years previously, or at any time when there was still the monarchy, he would have gotten nowhere. He came at exactly this terrible transitory period when the monarchy had gone and the republic was not yet secure.”

This was history’s perfect storm. Hitler seized the moment and plunged Germany and all of Europe full steam into catastrophe.

We can never know how different history may have looked had Hitler been felled by bullets that early morning a hundred years — whether the Weimar Republic could have survived the postwar political and economic turmoil, whether President Hindenburg would have successfully navigated his country back into monarchy, or whether Europe would have been spared a sequel to the Great War.

Some Germans were already speaking of a “second world war” within a year of the armistice that was to have ended “the war to end all wars.” We can say with certainty that no other political leader of the era would have harnessed national passions or driven an anti-Semitic, pure-race agenda with such ferocity or tragic consequence, resulting in the deaths of millions of European Jews as well as gypsies, homosexuals, the weak and disabled.

So what is the lesson of this particular counterfactual moment for us today? Beyond the fact that the Weimar Republic might well be celebrating the 95th anniversary of its Constitution this autumn, a history without Hitler underscores both the potential and pitfalls of transitioning societies. It shows us that these processes require time, sometimes generations, and how different German history may have been had Hitler fallen with his regiment in Flanders fields 100 years ago this week.

Timothy W. Ryback, the deputy director general of the Académie Diplomatique Internationale in Paris and a founder of the Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation at Leiden University, is the author, most recently, of “Hitler’s First Victims: The Quest for Justice.”

The History of Welfare

Welfare in the United States commonly refers to the federal government welfare programs that have been put in place to assist the unemployed or underemployed. Help is extended to the poor through a variety of government welfare programs that include Medicaid, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).

Historical Poverty Rate in the US

Welfare is a fluid topic that cannot be discussed without first understanding the history of poverty in the United States. Many welfare programs are tied directly to the poverty line, which is defined federally on an annual basis.

The poverty line is dependent on the members in a household. For example, in 2017 the poverty line for a single adult was $12,488, but for a family of four it was $25,094. In 2000, those numbers were $8,791 and $17,604, respectively.

Here is a chart of the poverty line, defined annually for a family of four from 1959-2017 as a reference point.

Early History

The history of welfare in the U.S. started long before the government welfare programs we know were created. In the early days of the United States, the colonies imported the British Poor Laws. These laws made a distinction between those who were unable to work due to their age or physical health and those who were able-bodied but unemployed. The former group was assisted with cash or alternative forms of help from the government. The latter group was given public service employment in workhouses.

Throughout the 1800's welfare history continued when there were attempts to reform how the government dealt with the poor. Some changes tried to help the poor move to work rather than continuing to need assistance. Social casework, consisting of caseworkers visiting the poor and training them in morals and a work ethic was advocated by reformers in the 1880s and 1890s.

Prior to the Great Depression, the United States Congress supported various programs to assist the poor. One of these, a Civil War Pension Program was passed in 1862 and provided aid to Civil War Veterans and their families.

When the Great Depression hit, many families suffered. It is estimated that one-fourth of the labor force was unemployed during the worst part of the depression. With many families suffering financial difficulties, the government stepped in to solve the problem and that is where the history of welfare as we know it really began.

Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Social Security Act was enacted in 1935. The act, which was amended in 1939, established a number of programs designed to provide aid to various segments of the population. Unemployment compensation and AFDC (originally Aid to Dependent Children) are two of the programs that still exist today.

A number of government agencies were created to oversee the welfare programs. Some of the agencies that deal with welfare in the United States are the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Department of Labor, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Education.

1990: Head Start State Collaboration

The Head Start State Collaboration Offices were first funded in 1990 as a pilot project much like the Head Start program that started as an experiment in 1965. At first, 12 states were funded. The purpose was to create significant, statewide partnerships between Head Start and the states in order to meet the increasingly complex, intertwined, and difficult challenges of improving services for economically disadvantaged children and their families. Funding for ten more states followed two years later. By 1997, all 50 states, Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico had Collaboration Offices. In 2008, the American Indian/Alaska Native and the Migrant and Seasonal Head Start programs established Collaboration Offices.

Welfare history continued to be made in 1996 President Bill Clinton signed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. Under the act, the federal government gives annual lump sums to the states to use to assist the poor. In turn the states must adhere to certain criteria to ensure that those receiving aid are being encouraged to move from welfare to work. Though some have criticized the program, many acknowledge it has been successful.

Those who seek welfare information can find such information on the Internet or by looking under United States Government in their local phone book. Programs are available to those who qualify to provide welfare help in the areas of health, housing, tax relief, and cash assistance.

1918 – 1939

‘A heap of Rats’ from Views taken during Cleansing Operations, Quarantine Area, Sydney, 1900, Vol. V / under the supervision of Mr George McCredie, F.I.A., N.S.W, Courtesy State Library of New South Wales

Bubonic plague broke out in Sydney in 1900 and soon spread to other Australian states. In seven months, 300 people caught the disease and 100 died. The disease came to Australia on ships from other countries, so the area around Sydney’s docks was quarantined: people could not move into or out of the area. The plague was spread by rats so the New South Wales Government introduced a rat bounty to encourage their capture.

In January 1919, a worse epidemic broke out. The Spanish Flu, brought to Australia by soldiers returning from World War I, killed millions of people around the world. Between 1919 and 1920 it killed more than 11,500 Australians. Fortunately, the Commonwealth Government was prepared and was able to stop the epidemic from spreading. Public health measures were introduced and an infectious diseases hospital was set up at Long Bay in Sydney. Quarantine stations were upgraded to quarantine and treat migrants and sailors suspected of carrying the Spanish Flu and other diseases.

Soldier Settler camp Curraview at Naradhan, New South Wales, 1924. Courtesy State Library of New South Wales

Soldier Settler Scheme

As soldiers returned home from World War I, many found there were no jobs and affordable accommodation. The Australian Government believed the soldiers deserved something for their war sacrifice and set up the ‘Soldier Settler Scheme’. State Governments provided land for soldier farms and the Australian Government provided funds to get them started. In New South Wales, most of the land was in the Riverina district, ironically an area that had large German communities before the war. Some soldier settlers did well, most did not. Over 37,500 took up farms, but by 1929 almost half had given up and left their land. The main reason for failure was their lack of farming experience, coupled with a long drought and falling prices for farm products. Italian migrants brought farming knowledge and practices with them, introducing irrigation and wine making to the Riverina area and turning the abandoned farms into successful businesses.

In the 1920s, the Australia Government was keen to develop regional areas. Prime Minister Stanley Bruce considered there were three things necessary for this: labour, money and markets and for these Australia depended on Britain. British migrants were encouraged to settle in Australia. The Australian Government paid most of their fare and, like the soldiers before them, some were assisted to establish farms. Unfortunately, also like the soldier settlers, they had come from urban areas and had limited or no experience in farming. As a result they failed and many abandoned their farms. They were told they would do well in Australia, but they were not told about the problems they would face, like finding a job, a home and settling down in a new country. About 212,000 migrants came from Britain and most ended up in cities.

An original Anzac and his family evicted from their Redfern home into the street during the Depression, William Roberts, 1929. Courtesy State Library of New South Wales

The Government needed substantial sums of money to fund these programs, as well as to pay for war pensions and the Soldier Settlement Scheme. It needed capital to build railways, roads, schools and hospitals and to supply houses with electricity and water. It needed money to pay the interest on the loans it had taken out during World War I. During the 1920s, the Australian Government borrowed heavily from British banks, who along with arms manufacturers were the main beneficiaries of the war.

In 1920, established farms and factories produced more than they ever had before. There were fewer than 6 million people in Australia, far less than were able to consume this excess in production so it was essential for goods and produce to be exported overseas. Australia had to find new overseas markets to sell them. The Dominions of the British Empire made an agreement to exclusively trade between themselves. Dominions would enjoy lower customs charges on imports and exports and this helped make the goods cheaper to buy in the shops. Britain continued to buy most of Australia’s wool and wheat.

Children line up for a free issue of soup and bread during the Depression, c.1932. Courtesy State Library of New South Wales

The Great Depression

For many people the ‘Roaring Twenties’ were good years. But by 1929 the world economy began to slow. Rural product prices were falling and farmers found it hard to sell their produce overseas. In the cities, businesses found it harder to sell their goods overseas. As production slowed, workers were laid off and unemployment hit 10%. For migrants and soldier settlers already experiencing hard times, this made things worse. In 1929, the economy stalled in what is called the ‘Great Depression’.

The Great Depression started in the United States. In the 1920s, the United States economy was booming and a large number of people invested all of their savings in shares on the stock market. A lot of investors made fortunes, but in 1929 investors panicked and began selling their shares in mass hysteria. As a large number of shares were sold, share prices plummeted. As the share price fell more people panicked which set up a self-sustaining cycle. On 24 October 1929, the stock market crashed and shares became worthless. This event impacted on the supply of money to countries all over the world.

In the 1920s, the United States and Britain were the world’s largest investors in overseas projects. By 1930, the United States stopped investing in other countries, demanded that other countries repay loans owed to it, put up high tariffs on imports and cut back on imports. Britain owed the United States a fortune in loans and called on Australia to pay back the millions of pounds it had borrowed in the 1920s. But Australia had no money either. As people lost their jobs, they could not afford to buy goods or pay taxes. It was mainly the unskilled workers and their families that were hit hardest and this included the recently arrived migrant families who were already finding the going tough. Shanty towns sprang up at Blacktown, Sans Souci and La Perouse. People vowed this would never happen again and the Australian Government took over social welfare in the 1930s.

The costume of an inner fascist group in the New Guard, c.1930s. Courtesy National Archives of Australia

This economic disaster encouraged people to join political organisations that promised solutions to their problems. In New South Wales two of these were the ‘Australian Communist Party’ and the ‘New Guard’. These groups reflected the rise of communism and fascism in Europe and their ideas came to Australia with migrants. Many of the organisers in the trade unions were migrants from northern England and the intellectual left in Australia came from German Jews migrating from the persecution of the Nazis in the 1930s. Most of the New Guard were ex-soldiers from the Great War who saw solutions in militarist terms. They wanted a strong government to take charge and round up troublemakers. Some New Guard branches took the black on red swastika flag of the Nazis as their symbol.

By the late 1930s, the economy started to recover with people getting jobs and factories producing more goods. But the Great Depression had produced a lot of suffering and had important effects for Australia. Between 1930 and 1939, Australia’s development almost stopped. The productivity of farming and industry declined. There was almost no migration to Australia and fewer babies were born between these years. Many people had lost faith in the Australian Government’s ability to manage the economy.

Sydney’s Bridge

Growing out of the gloom of the Great Depression, the Sydney Harbour Bridge came to symbolise Australia’s hope for a better deal and fairer future for all.

Work on the bridge started in 1924. Over 720 homes were demolished and whole suburbs of the Millers and Milsons Point changed forever. The main arch was started in 1928 and Sydneysiders watched the two halves rise to meet on 19 August 1930. To many people the bridge was one of the wonders of the modern world.

Proposals to join the north and south sides of the harbour with a bridge were first put forward by convict architect Francis Greenway in 1815. There had been many plans to build a bridge across the harbour through the 19th century, but none were realised. This was because it was very expensive and the technologically difficult to build bridges over large areas fast flowing water such as Sydney Harbour.

After holding a worldwide competition in 1922, the New South Wales Government received twenty proposals from six companies. The English firm Dorman Long and Co of Middlesbrough won the competition and the contract for £4,217,721.00 was awarded on 24 March 1924.

The bridge was opened in March 1932. New South Wales Premier Jack Lang made the opening speech, but before he could finish Captain Francis de Groot of the New Guard rushed forward on horse back and cut the ribbon in the name of the decent citizens of New South Wales. He was promptly arrested as a public nuisance.

A new ribbon was located and Lang opened the bridge. School children, bridge workers, politicians, bureaucrats and Aborigines specially selected for the occasion marched across the bridge in a huge procession. Even Bondi Lifesavers paraded across in formation burning their feet on the hot bitumen. A newsreel commentator announced it makes you proud to be Australian.

At the end of the ceremony the public were allowed to swarm over the bridge before it was opened to evening traffic. The day ended with a spectacular fireworks display.

Watch the video: Ο στρατηγός συνταγματάρχης Hans Hube #8