Combat of Laveno, 30 May 1859
The combat of Laveno (30 May 1859) was a rare defeat for Garibaldi during his Alpine Campaign of 1859 and saw him fail to take an Austrian stronghold on Lake Maggiore.
Garibaldi’s campaign began on 22-23 May 1859 when he crossed the Ticinio River three miles south of Lake Maggiore. He occupied Varese, and defeated an Austrian army that attempted to recapture the city (battle of Varese, 26 May 1859). He then advanced east towards Como, capturing it after pushing the Austrians off a pass overlooking the town from the west (battle of San Fermo, 27 May 1859). Garibaldi’s arrival triggered revolts in the area, and the Austrian steam ships on Lake Como were captured by the rebels.
The same wasn’t the case on Lake Maggiore, where the steamships remained in Austrian hands, and operated from a base at Laveno, a port about a third of the way up the eastern shore of the lake. Garibaldi realised that he was dangerously exposed at Como, which could be reinforced easily from the main Austrian base at Milan. He decided to return west and attempt to capture Laveno, in the hope that this would give him control of Lake Maggiore.
Laveno was defended by a fort that was held by 590 Austrians, supported by the guns of the steamboats on the lake. Garibaldi decided to launch a surprise attack on this fort on the night of 30 May, but one of his columns got lost and the surprise failed.
On the following morning Garibaldi’s position appeared to get worse, when he learnt that the Austrians had retaken Varese. Luckily for Garibaldi the setback at Laveno took place as the far greater Austrian repulse at Palestro. Urban was ordered to move back towards the main Austrian army, reducing the pressure on Garibaldi. A few days later the French won a major victory at Magenta (4 June 1859) and the Austrians withdrew east towards their defensive stronghold, the Quadrilateral. Garibaldi advanced east on the northern flank of the Austrian army, repelling an Austrian attack on his rear guard at Tre Ponti (15 June 1859), before being moved to a secondary theatre before the end of the war.
A Warning from History: The Carrington Event Was Not Unique
Sept. 1, 2020: On Sept. 1st, 1859, the most ferocious solar storm in recorded history engulfed our planet. It was “the Carrington Event,” named after British scientist Richard Carrington, who witnessed the flare that started it. The storm rocked Earth’s magnetic field, sparked auroras over Cuba, the Bahamas and Hawaii, set fire to telegraph stations, and wrote itself into history books as the Biggest. Solar. Storm. Ever.
But, sometimes, what you read in history books is wrong.
“The Carrington Event was not unique,” says Hisashi Hayakawa of Japan’s Nagoya University, whose recent study of solar storms has uncovered other events of comparable intensity. “While the Carrington Event has long been considered a once‐in‐a‐century catastrophe, historical observations warn us that this may be something that occurs much more frequently.”
Drawings of the Carrington sunspot by Richard Carrington on Sept. 1, 1859, and (inset) Heinrich Schwabe on Aug. 27, 1859. [Ref]
Many previous studies of solar superstorms leaned heavily on Western Hemisphere accounts, omitting data from the Eastern Hemisphere. This skewed perceptions of the Carrington Event, highlighting its importance while causing other superstorms to be overlooked.
A good example is the great storm of mid-September 1770, when extremely bright red auroras blanketed Japan and parts of China. Captain Cook himself saw the display from near Timor Island, south of Indonesia. Hayakawa and colleagues recently found drawings of the instigating sunspot, and it is twice the size of the Carrington sunspot group. Paintings, dairy entries, and other newfound records, especially from China, depict some of the lowest-latitude auroras ever, spread over a period of 9 days.
An eyewitness sketch of red auroras over Japan in mid-September 1770. [Ref]
Hayakawa’s team has delved into the history of other storms as well, examining Japanese diaries, Chinese and Korean government records, archives of the Russian Central Observatory, and log-books from ships at sea–all helping to form a more complete picture of events.
They found that superstorms in February 1872 and May 1921 were also comparable to the Carrington Event, with similar magnetic amplitudes and widespread auroras. Two more storms are nipping at Carrington’s heels: The Quebec Blackout of March 13, 1989, and an unnamed storm on Sept. 25, 1909, were only a factor of
2 less intense. (Check Table 1 of Hayakawa et al‘s 2019 paper for details.)
Oriental reports of a giant naked-eye sunspot group (left) and auroras (right) in Feb. 1872. [Ref]
Are we overdue for another Carrington Event? Maybe. In fact, we might have just missed one.
In July 2012, NASA and European spacecraft watched an extreme solar storm erupt from the sun and narrowly miss Earth. “If it had hit, we would still be picking up the pieces,” announced Daniel Baker of the University of Colorado at a NOAA Space Weather Workshop 2 years later. “It might have been stronger than the Carrington Event itself.”
History books, let the re-write begin.
TRINITY COUNTY HISTORY CHRONOLOGY
Original list extrapolated from Trinity County Chronology, a manuscript created from Tom Ludden's 1970 Weaverville Elementary School summer school classes, grades 5 through 8, these dates shown with an asterisk (*). Additional dates added and information confirmed where possible.
6000+ years ago (4000 BC) - American Indians occupy villages in what was later to be Trinity County.
1828 - April-May. Jedediah Smith Party ventures through southern Trinity up through area near Hyampom and Burnt Ranch.
1830s - Possibly a few Euro-american trappers, traders, and/or explorers in area
1842 - English pirates said to have found gold on Trinity River at Sailor's Bar.*
1845 - May. Major Pierson Reading names Trinity River while trapping.*
1846 - Company of United States soldiers, out of San Francisco, camp near Lewiston. Trinity River dry with exception of occasional pools.*
1847-49 - Two men, apparently Americans, said to have panned gold dust on Trinity River below Junction City.*
1848 - Discovery of gold at Readings Creek by Pierson Reading.
1849 - Josiah Gregg-L.K. Wood Party leaves Rich Bar gold mines to find trail to coast, to start supply route from coast. Party names Mad, Eel, and Van Duzen rivers.
1849 - Major gold find at Big Bar on Trinity River.*
1849 - First settler. French-Canadian named Gross discovers rich strike on North Fork above Helena. First log cabin in county.*
1849 - Settlements established in Big Bar/Big Flat area.
1850 - Spring. Resulting from Gregg-Wood Party efforts, ships such as Laura Virginia use Humboldt and Trinidad bays, establishing trade centers and beginning use of travel routes in to Trinity gold mines, earliest destination being towns of Big Flat and Big Bar along Trinity River.
1850 - Mrs. Walton reputed to be first white woman and lady miner in Trinity County. Big Bar area.*
1850 - Feb. 18. Trinity created as one of original twenty-seven California counties. 8,368 square miles included present counties of Trinity, Humboldt, Del Norte, and part of Siskiyou.
1850 - Summer. Founding of Weaverville, California. Named after a Mr. Weaver. Cabin built on site of courthouse.
1850 - Sept. 9. California admitted to the Union.*
1850 - Nov. Hayfork Valley discovered by John Duncan party while in pursuit of a small band of Indians.*
1850 - Post offices at Big Bar and Weaverville. Mail carried by mule over rough trails.*
1850s - Kanaka Bar established. Became Douglas City in 1859 during the time Stephen A. Douglas was running against Abraham Lincoln for the Senate.*
1851 - First settlement in Hayfork Valley: Kingsberry, then Hay Town (1854) now Hayfork.*
1851 - Trinity Centre (Trinity Center) founded. Canyon City, below Dedrick, on Canyon Creek, settled. Mill Town (Junction City) at mouth of Canyon Creek with saw mill established.*
1851 - Discovery of New River by gold miners.
1851 - May. Weaverville victorious over Union Town (Arcata) in election to select county seat.
1851 - First sermon preached in Trinity County (Methodist), Reverend Mr. Hill.*
1852 - Mrs. Henrietta Ewing first white woman to settle in Hayfork Valley. Second in county.*
1852 - March. Bridge Gulch Massacre. John Anderson, Weaverville butcher, killed by Indians on Rush Creek, cattle driven away. Company of Weaverville miners pursue Indians and ambush camp on Upper Hayfork Creek. 153 or more Indians perish, two children survive. (Some conflicting information on the numbers)
1852 - William Spencer Lowden, 1850 pioneer, builds first mule bridge over Trinity River, near Lewiston.*
1852 - Pacific Brewery built. Purchased by John Meckel, Sr., in 1878. Meckel Bros.' beer known throughout west.*
1852 - Major Cox establishes agricultural claim on Trinity River. Later named Cox's Bar.*
1852-53 - Chinese Joss Hose built on Chimney Point in Weaverville. First permanent house of worship in Trinity County. Temple of the Clouds and Forest destroyed by fire June 28, 1873.*
1853 - Mar. 7. Disastrous Weaverville fire, $100,000 in damages. Other big fires in 1855, 1863, early 1870s, 1897, and 1905.*
1853 - May 6. Charter granted Trinity Lodge No. 27 F&AM.*
1853 - July. Van Matre Ranch located near junction of Stuart Fork and East Fork.*
1853 - First Catholic sermon, preached by Father Florian ("Padre of Paradise Flat").*
1854 - Chinese Tong War fought between two belligerent Chinese Tongs. 2000 participate. On site of Weaverville Elementary School.*
1854 - Burnt Ranch name established through Indian raid and burning of buildings which made up town.*
1854 - Sept. 16. Cram, Rogers, and Company established mule passenger train to run daily from Shasta to Weaverville.*
1854 - Dec. 9. Trinity Times first newspaper published in Trinity County.*
1855 - Jan. 12. Hiampum (Hyampom) settled by Hank Young.*
1855 - Lotta Crabtree played in Weaverville.*
1855 - August. Weaverville Democrat first published. Publication ends February 1856.
1856 - Jan. Five Indians executed by a mob, on Trinity River, supposed to have been guilty of stealing mules and horses.*
1856 - Jan. 26. Trinity Journal begins long uninterrupted publication. Second oldest newspaper in California.*
1856 - Feb. Public highway declared for Weaverville to Lewiston over new trail (Trinity Journal, February 16, 1859)
1856 - Feb. License for toll ferry to cross Trinity River at Cox Bar (Trinity Journal, February 9, 1856)
1856 - Apr. Wariner completes toll bridge at Big Flat (Trinity Journal, April 19, 1856)
1856 - Apr. New ferry across Trinity River at Taylor's Flat by W. McCollum (Trinity Journal, April 19, 1856)
1856 - Bartlett and Company establish large tannery at mouth of what is now known as Tannery Gulch.*
1856 - Lewiston School District, first to be formed in Trinity County.*
1856 - First Catholic Church erected on Deadwood Creek.*
1856 - Aug. 29. North Star Lodge No. 61 IOOF instituted in Weaverville.*
1857 - Toll Ferry given license to cross Trinity River at Cedar Flat.*
1857 - May. New trail from Canon City to Weaverville (Trinity Journal, May 9, 1857)
1857 - Jul. First apple grown in Trinity (Trinity Journal, July 15, 1856)
1858 - County courthouse building erected as a store building. Purchased as a courthouse for $9,000 in 1865.*
1858 - Fordyce Bates elected State Assembly from Trinity County. Instrumental in securing poll tax funds for road building.*
1858 - Weaverville and Shasta Wagon Road Company (W.S. Lowden and friends) complete toll road between Tower House, Lowden's Ranch, and Weaverville. April 29, first stage arrived in Weaverville. May 10, first freight teams arrive in Weaverville.*
1858 - June 7. Telegraph line completed, linking Weaverville, Shasta, Trinity Center, and Yreka.*
1858 - Jun. Brick yard started at North Fork. (Trinity Journal, June 5, 1858)
1858-1864 - Indian difficulties encountered by down river (Cox Bar to South Fork), Mad River, and lower Trinity County settlers. State and Federal governments requested to drive Indians from threatened district.*
1859 - California and Oregon wagon road between Shasta and Yreka built. Easier access to Trinity Center.*
1859 - Meckel Brothers build and operate brewery at North Fork (Helena).* (Trinity Journal, March 12, 1859)
1859 - Weaverville Waterworks established by Chase and Sales. Water system brings water from Garden Gulch by wooden pipe.*
1859-60 - Wagon roads completed north to Trinity Center and Minersville and south into Hayfork Valley.*
1861-62 - Great flood wipes out flumes and wheels, many miners leave for other areas.*
1862 - Lewiston Joss House, built about 1856, burned. Rebuilt and again destroyed by Chinatown fire in 1882.* (Trinity Journal, May 31, 1862)
1862 - Weaverville said to have 28 saloons and liquor holes, with gambling and fighting being the favorite pastimes.*
1862 - Oct. 18. Lewiston school house erected as Sons of Temperance Lodge. School building 1865-1960s.*
1862 - Sept. New Catholic Church dedicated at Oregon Gulch (Trinity Journal, September 27, 1862)
1863 - Weaverville Company, "Mountaineer Battalion", 82 men, formed to combat threats of the local "copperhead" population.*
1863 - Oct. Fire in Weaverville burns Trinity Journal and other buildings (Trinity Journal, October 10, 1863)
1864 - Fort-like fortifications constructed at Hayfork, Burnt Ranch, and Church Creek on Van Duzen to deter the Indians.*
1865 - Mar. 7. "Last" Indian battle fought near Burnt Ranch, "Win-toons" moved to reservation at Hoopa.*
1865 (?) - Poison Camp (Zenia) settled.*
1866 - Dec. Another flood hurts Weaver Basin
1867 - Aug. Portable steam sawmill set up near town of Indian Creek (Trinity Journal, August 17, 1867)
1868 - Feb. Another flood (Trinity Journal, February 29, 1868)
1868 - Carter House, Hayfork Hotel, established, soon the cultural and social center of the valley. The building burned in 1906.*
1869 - Apr. First velocipede arrives. (Trinity Journal, April 24, 1869)
1869 - May. Velocipede vs. jackass race (Trinity Journal, May 15, 69)
1869 - Wagon road to Canyon Creek finished (Trinity Journal, July 10, 1869)
1870 - First "giant" brought to Trinity County. Hydraulic mining begins in county.* At Douglas City. (Trinity Journal, February 19, 1870)
1870 - Most Indians deposed from Trinity. Settled on reservations at Hoopa, Mendocino, and North Coast.*
1871 - Feb. Condon House in Weaverville sinks in mine shaft. (Trinity Journal, Febuary 25, 1871)
1872 - "Little giant" tested, hydraulic mining a success. (Trinity Journal, March 23 & March 30, 1872)
1874 - Apr. Weaverville Joss House dedicated. Structure still standing at Chimney Point.* (Trinity Journal, April 18, 1874)
1874 - Apr. First mineral patent issued in Trinity County. (Trinity Journal, April 25, 1874)
1874 - Jun. 60 giants in county, more coming. (Trinity Journal, June 20, 1874)
1875 - Altoona Quicksilver Mining Company takes possession of property having mercury-bearing rock in northeastern Trinity County. First discovery and location made in 1860s.*
1875 - Wagon road completed (Trinity Journal, October 23, 1875)
1876 - Townsite Act passed by Congress, sites of Weaverville and other towns authorized.* (town patent - Trinity Journal, September 23, 1876)
1877 - May. Large quartz find made at Deadwood.*
1878 - Weaverville's two-story grammar school built at cost of $5,850.*
1979 - Trinity River frozen over at Lewiston. (Trinity Journal, January 18, 1879)
1880 (?) - Brown Bear Mine at Deadwood established.* (not sure about 1880 date article on Brown Bear in Trinity Journal, January 21, 1882)
1880 - Bowerman barn built (7/10/1880 TJ)
1880 - Sept. 1. First stage robbery in Trinity County. Hold-up on Trinity Mountain nets outlaws $113.*
1881 - Jan. Hoboken up New River destroyed by flooding. (Trinity Journal, January 22, 1881)
1881 - Nov. School at Long Ridge destroyed by fire (Trinity Journal, November 19, 1881)
1883 - Feb. Trinity River frozen at Trinity Center (Trinity Journal, February 10, 1883)
1883 - Dec. Suspension bridge built across Trinity at Junction City (Trinity Journal, January 5 & March 30, 1884)
1884 - Little towns of New River City (Old Denny), White Rock, and Marysville established in Upper New River with hardrock mining boom that had begun a couple years before.
1887 - Dec. Tunnel constructed to divert part of Trinity River near Big French Creek. (Trinity Journal, May 14, June 4 & December 17, 1887)
1888 - Oct. 25. Trinity and Shasta Telegraph and Telephone Company line placed in service. First connection to outside world by telephone.*
1889 - Mar. Free suspension bridge completed on Trinity at Junction City. (Trinity Journal, March 30, 1889)
1889 - Oct. 20. Congregational Church of Lewiston organized. Church building still standing. Dedicated Nov. 1, 1896.*
1889 - Dec. Weaverville-Redding stage robber Black Bart caught. (Trinity Journal, December 28, 1889)
1890 - Feb. 3. China Slide. A large mass of earth and rock skid into Trinity River canyon, damming up river and creating temporary lake 13 miles long. Killed three Chinese miners. (Trinity Journal, February 15, 1890)
1890 - Mar./Apr. Heavy loss of livestock in southern Trinity due to snow. (Trinity Journal, April 5, 1890)
1893 - Apr. 8. Trinity Gold Mining Company purchased by Baron Ernest De La Grange for $250,000.*
1893 - Nov. Electric lights in Weaverville. (Trinity Journal, November 25, 1893)
1894 - Apr. First bicycle in Trinity. (Trinity Journal, April 28, 1894)
1894 - Oct. New county hospital built. (Trinity Journal, October 6, 1894)
1895 - Sept. Mule bridge at Don Juan Creek completed. (Trinity Journal, September 7, 1895)
1896 - Jul. Creamery completed at Hayfork. (Trinity Journal, July 25, 1896)
1896 - Nov. Long Ridge School burns. (Trinity Journal, November 14, 1896)
1898 - World's largest hydraulic mine, La Grange, begins operation. Water carried 29 miles through a system of flumes, siphons, ditches, and tunnels to the penstocks above the pit on Oregon Mountain.*
1898 - Aug. First dredge in county, Kise Bros. at Lewiston. (Trinity Journal, August 17, 1898)
1899 - Concrete walk laid in front of court house. (Trinity Journal, August 26, 1899)
1901 - July. First gasoline-powered automobile, owned by R.J. Anderson, visited Weaverville.*
1901 - Jan. Heaviest snow in years. Damage. 62" in Weaverville. (Trinity Journal, January 5 & January 12, 1901)
1902 - Mar. Course of Trinity changes at Junction City. Bridge over dry land. (Trinity Journal, March 15, 1902)
1905 - Apr. 25. Trinity Forest Reserve established. Changed to Trinity National Forest on March 4, 1907.*
1906 - First hand pump fire engine comes to Weaverville.* (Trinity Journal, April 7, 1906)
1906 - Junction City power plant. (Trinity Journal, February 3, 1906)
1908 - First milking machine at Hayfork. (Trinity Journal, May 23, 1908)
1909 - First county high school in Weaverville. (Trinity Journal, August 21, 1909)
1910 - Most of Harrison Gulch burns. (Trinity Journal, November 12, 1910)
1912 - Monroe Toll Road finished over South Fork Mountain. Links Hayfork, Ruth, to coast.*
1914 - May. First train to Island Mountain. (Trinity Journal, May 30, 1914)
1917 - U.S. joins in World War I. Reuben Greenwell reportedly first young Trinity resident to volunteer.
1921 - Sept. 20-22. First Trinity County Fair held in Hayfork. Governor Stephens guest speaker.*
1923 - Final stretch of road, Helena to South Fork, completed by convict labor crews. Opens major route from Trinity to coast.
1924 - Hayfork-Hyampom Wagon Road finished, many settlers expected.*
1926 - First radio reception in county.*
1929 - First airplane to land in Trinity County.*
1933 - Civilian Conservation Corps program sets up camps in Trinity.
1942 - Government War Order closes all mines in Trinity County.*
1942 - Last of Civilian Conservation Corps camps close in county.
1947 - Six Rivers National Forest established, taking over some of the western portion of Trinity National Forest (Six rivers are Smith, Trinity, Klamath, Van Duzen, Mad, and Eel.)
1954 - Jan. 28. Trinity County Historical Society founded. Object, to record history and preserve relics of Trinity County.*
1954 - Trinity and Shasta national forests administered as one forest, Shasta-Trinity National Forest.
1955 - August. Trinity River Project authorized by U.S. Congress.*
1959 - Trinity Lake begins filling, covering Trinity Center, many ranches, cattle and sheep rangelands.*
1960 - Oct. Trinity Dam topped out. 537 feet high and one-half mile long.*
Laveno Mombello is situated in a large natural bay of Lake Maggiore, and is a point of connection with the Piedmont side through its marina and its picturesque pier, from which year-round ferry transportation with cars for Verbania-Intra . Very close is the railway station,directly connected to the city of Milan, and is the starting point for private connections to the Malpensa International Airport, which is about 40 minutes from the town center. You may enjoy a wonderful view of the lake and the Pre-Alps, and the lowland extending up to Milan if you take the cable car above the village, in which you reach the summit of Mount Sasso del Ferro, launch point for lovers of hang gliding and paragliding.
In a few minutes by car there are tourist and cultural interest such as Cerro Laveno with the International Museum of Ceramics, Castelveccana,that is considered the Portofino of Lake Maggiore,with its fortress, Leggiuno with the spectacular Eremo of Santa Caterina overlooking the lake, the islands Borromeo (Isola Bella, Isola Madre and Isola dei Pescatori), the Sacromonte of Varese (UNESCO world heritage) with the picturesque stroll through the art Chapels, the beautiful Rocca Borromeo of Angera, Lake Varese with Isolino Virginia and the museum Ponti (remains of civilizations’ of the pile), Gavirate with the Cloister of Voltorre, Gemonio with the house-museum of the famous sculptor Floriano Bodini, and more. Many are the bike lanes between the green landscape of valcuvia and around the Lake Varese.
Storia e curiosità
The municipality of Laveno Mombello is the tourist capital of the eastern shore of Lake Maggiore, it covers an area of 25 square kilometers at 200 m above sea level and is home to approximately 10,000 residents. Beside Laveno Mombello and Cerro, there are other villages as Ceresolo and Ponte, and scenic spots and beautiful hills as the Cascine (490 m), Monteggia (394 m), Casere (768 m). Montecristo and Brena (334 m).
Mombello is the oldest, as the traces of primitive settlements (3000 BC) in the hilly area of Torbiera, while Laveno and Cerro are from the Roman era. It appears that the name Laveno derives from the Roman general Tito Labieno, who was opposed to the Gauls on the heights of Mombello (“Mons belli” or “Mountain of War”). The Romans were followed by the Lombards and the Franks, then the Visconti, the Sforza, the Borromeo and Besozzi .. After the Spanish domination, Laveno passed to the Austrians, whose dominion surpassed also the Napoleonic period. But is May 30, 1859 the most glorious dare if his history, when the country was the scene of the battles of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who with the troops of the Hunters of the Alps was rejected twice by the Austrians. Evidence of the event remain today in the ossuary of the Tower of the Castle,that is the fort overlooking the bay of Cerro,and in the barracks of Punta San Michele, today house of the Sailing Club East Verbano.
Today in History, May 31, 1859: Big Ben’s clock chimed for the first time
A British flag flies near the "Big Ben" clock tower of Parliament in London. (Photo: Matt Dunham, AP)
Today is May 31. On this date:
English diarist Samuel Pepys wrote the final entry of his journal, blaming his failing eyesight for his inability to continue.
The Big Ben clock tower in London went into operation, chiming for the first time.
Some 2,200 people in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, perished when the South Fork Dam collapsed, sending 20 million tons of water rushing through the town.
The Boer War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging, putting an end to hostilities between the British Empire and two republics in South Africa.
THE SECOND ANGLO - BOER WAR, SOUTH AFRICA 1899-1902: General Piet Cronje (in broad brimmed hat) seated in the shade with British officers after his surrender at the Battle of Paardeberg. An Indian servant is working in the background. (Photo: Imperial War Museums)
During World War I, British and German fleets fought the naval Battle of Jutland off Denmark there was no clear-cut victor, although the British suffered heavier losses.
A race riot erupted in Tulsa, Oklahoma, as white mobs began looting and leveling the affluent black district of Greenwood over reports a black man had assaulted a white woman in an elevator hundreds are believed to have died.
Tulsa race riots, May 31-June 1, 1921. (Photo: File)
Former State Department official and accused spy Alger Hiss went on trial in New York, charged with perjury (the jury deadlocked, but Hiss was convicted in a second trial).
Former Nazi official Adolf Eichmann was hanged in Israel a few minutes before midnight for his role in the Holocaust.
Damage from an earthquake in Peru, May 31, 1970. (Photo: File)
The Trans-Alaska oil pipeline, three years in the making despite objections from environmentalists and Alaska Natives, was completed. (The first oil began flowing through the pipeline 20 days later.)
Eighty-eight people were killed, more than 1,000 injured, when 41 tornadoes swept through parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York and Ontario, Canada, during an 8-hour period.
The cast of "Seinfeld" (l-r): Michael Richards, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Jason Alexander, and Jerry Seinfeld. (Photo: NBC)
President George H.W. Bush welcomed Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev to Washington for a summit meeting.
The situation comedy “Seinfeld” began airing as a regular series on NBC.
The United States announced it was no longer aiming long-range nuclear missiles at targets in the former Soviet Union.
Breaking a silence of 30 years, former FBI official W. Mark Felt stepped forward as “Deep Throat,” the secret Washington Post source during the Watergate scandal.
Mark Felt appears on CBS' "Face The Nation" on Aug. 30, 1976. (Photo: AP Photo/File)
Combat of Laveno, 30 May 1859 - History
533 entered the jet age in May 1953 with its acquisition of the F2H-A4 Banshee. They saw several carrier deployments in the ensuing years, followed by another transition to the F9F Cougar in 1957. Yet another change was soon to follow as the squadron received the A-4D Skyhawk in 1959, and with it a redesignation to Marine Attack Squadron 533 (VMA-533). The next change was to come in 1965 when the Hawks received the A-6A Intruder, giving them an all weather capability and the appropriate change in title, VMA(AW)-533.
Soon after transitioning to the A-6, 533 deployed to Chu Lai, Republic of Vietnam to support combat operations. They remained there from 1967 to 1969, then redeploying to MCAS Iwakuni, Japan. All told, VMA(AW)-533 accumulated over 10,000 combat sorties in these busy years, garnering them the Commandant’s Aviation Efficiency Trophy. This would not be the last time that the Hawks would see combat over Southeast Asia. They returned to service over Vietnam in 1972, deploying for a year to Nam Phong, Thailand. They were soon flying mission over Cambodia and Laos, as well. They returned to Iwakuni in August 1973, and then to Cherry Point in November 1975, where they received their first A-6E the following year.
In April of 1980, VMA(AW)-533 returned to Iwakuni, becoming the first all weather attack squadron to participate in the new Unit Deployment Program (UDP). Throughout the 1980s the squadron deployed, both to Japan and later for several carrier cruises aboard the USS Saratoga and USS John F. Kennedy. The last deployment for the Hawks proved to be longer, as the UDP that began in April 1990 ended and the squadron continued to Bahrain in December 1990 for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Following participation in those hostilities, VMA(AW)-533 returned home after an “around the world” deployment that lasted eleven and a half months.
1 September 1992 brought many changes to 533, most notably a change to the new F/A-18D Hornet, and with this its newest and current designation, and a move to MCAS Beaufort SC. This made them the first all weather fighter attack squadron in 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. Soon to follow were countless new training opportunities as the squadron developed and refined new techniques and procedures to match the more capable platform. These techniques would soon be put to the test when VMFA(AW)-533 was deployed to Aviano Air Base in July 1993. They returned three times over the next five years, flying a wide variety of missions to support NATO operations. Following their first UDP in Hornets in 1999, 533 returned one last time to Eastern Europe, this time operating from Taszar AB, Hungary.
Next for the squadron was yet another UDP, from January 2001 to July 2001. Of great tactical significance was the work that the squadron did with the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, Special Operations Capable (MEU (SOC)). The Hawks became the first land based fixed wing squadron to successfully a MEU (SOC) afloat, executing an island-hopping campaign throughout the Pacific that would take them to airfields not seen by US forces since World War II. Soon, preparations were underway for the next UDP in January 2003. But as that date drew near, VMFA(AW)-533 received word that the squadron would instead deploy to the CENTCOM AOR supporting Operations Southern Watch and Iraqi Freedom, arriving at Al-Jaber Air Base 11 February 2003. On 20 March coalition forces began the ground offensive with support from the squadron’s Hornets. While operating around the clock, the squadron expended over 800,000 pounds of ordnance, flying 558 sorties and 1440 flight hours. For their outstanding support of the successful campaign against the Iraqi regime, the Hawks were awarded another Presidential Unit Citation.
After their safe return, the Hawks continued to train, focusing on air-to-ground skills at Combined Arms Exercises in California in January and February 2004. Soon enough the squadron was once again on the move, spending the latter half of 2004 in various locations around the Pacific for its most recent UDP.
In February 2006 the Hawks deployed to Al Asad Air Base in the Al Anbar Province of Iraq. The squadron was assigned to the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing in support of 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. The Hawks employed the F/A-18D with the Litening II FLIR/TV pod in a myriad of roles which included reconnaissance, surveillance, convoy escort, close-air support, strike missions, forward air controller airborne (FAC(A)) and tactical air controller airborne (TAC(A)). While once again operating around the clock, the squadron expended over 110,000 pounds of ordnance, flying 2480 sorties and 7456 flight hours.
World War II:
On October 1, 1943, Marine Night Fighter Squadron 533 (VMF(N)-533) was commissioned at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina. Originally known as "Black Mac's Killers", after their first commanding officer Major Marion M. Magruder, they were one of three night fighter squadrons to be activated in the Marine Corps and were outfitted with the Grumman F6F-5N Hellcat, equipped with the APS-6 radar. The squadron left for the West Coast in early April and on April 16, they embarked on board the USS Long Island (CVE-1) headed for the South Pacific. In May 1944, the squadron conducted their final training on the F6F aboard Marine Corps Air Station Ewa, Hawaii and then headed for Eniwetok. On June 12 they relieved VMF(N)-532 and assumed night defense responsibilities for the area. On November 30 they moved to Engebi and continued operations.
On May 7, 1945, with only two days notice, the squadron of 15 F6F Hellcat planes took off from Engebi with R5C escorts and flew to Saipan, a total of 1,004 nautical miles (1,859 km). This was the longest flight ever over water by a squadron in single engine military aircraft. Each plane had a 150-gallon belly tank, and the squadron had to travel at the speed of the slowest plane.
The squadron moved to Yontan Airfield, Okinawa in May 1945 and finally settled on Ie Shima on June 15, 1945. Between May 14 and June 29, 533 would claim shooting down 30 Japanese planes - by radar, at night - without one operational loss. This was a night fighter record for enemy planes shot down by a single squadron. They also had the first night fighter ace, Capt Robert Baird. The first F7F-2N Tigercat for the squadron arrived on Okinawa the day before the end of the war so it did not see combat. In October 1945, the squadron moved to Peiping, China for occupation duty and completed their transition to the new Tigercat. The Hawks soon moved to Hawaii before finally settling back in the U.S. at MCAS Cherry Point in January 1947. 533 would spend the Korean War there as well, training Tigercat aircrew for night combat overseas.
1950s - 1960s:
VMF-533 entered the jet age in May 1953 with its acquisition of the F2H-4 Banshee. They saw several carrier deployments in the ensuing years, followed by another transition to the F9F Cougar in 1957. Yet another change was soon to follow as the squadron received the A4D Skyhawk in 1959, and with it a redesignation to Marine Attack Squadron 533 (VMA-533). The next change was to come in 1965 when the Hawks received the A-6A Intruder, giving them an all-weather capability and the appropriate change in title, VMA(AW)-533.
Soon after transitioning to the A-6, VMA(AW)533 deployed to Chu Lai Air Base, Republic of Vietnam to support combat operations. They remained there from 1967 to 1969, then redeploying to Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan. All told, VMA(AW)-533 accumulated over 10,000 combat sorties in these busy years, garnering them the Commandant’s Aviation Efficiency Trophy. In one noted incident, on October 25, 1967, three A-6A Intruders from VMA(AW)-533 attacked the Phuc Yen Air Base outside of Hanoi and the action was so intense all three pilots were awarded the Navy Cross. These pilots were among the few aviators to receive Navy Crosses awarded to fixed wing pilots during the Vietnam War.
This would not be the last time that the Hawks would see combat over Southeast Asia. They returned to service over Vietnam in 1972, deploying for a year to Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong, Thailand. They were soon flying mission over Cambodia and Laos, as well. They returned to MCAS Iwakuni in September 1973, and then to MCAS Cherry Point in November 1975, where they received their first A-6E the following year.
Gulf War & the 1990s:
The squadron deployed to Bahrain in December 1990 for Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. Following participation in those hostilities, VMA(AW)-533 returned home after an “around the world” deployment that lasted eleven and a half months.
September 1, 1992 brought many changes to 533, most notably a change to the new F/A-18D Hornet, and with this its newest and current designation, and a move to Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina. This made them the first all-weather fighter attack squadron in 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. These techniques would soon be put to the test when VMFA(AW)-533 was deployed to Aviano Air Base in July 1993. They returned three times over the next five years, flying a wide variety of missions to support NATO operations. In 1999, the squadron supported Operation Allied Force in Yugoslavia from Taszar Air Base Hungary and flew 111 combat sorties during the conflict. After the cease-fire of June 11, 1999, the Hawks flew an additional 82 combat sorties to ensure Serb compliance with the withdrawal from Kosovo.
Global War on Terror:
The squadron deployed to the Kuwait supporting Operation Southern Watch and Operation Iraqi Freedom, arriving at Al-Jaber Air Base on February 11, 2003. On March 20, coalition forces began the ground offensive with support from the squadron’s Hornets. While operating around the clock, the squadron expended over 800,000 pounds of ordnance, flying 558 sorties and 1440 flight hours. For their support of the successful campaign against the Iraqi regime, the Hawks were awarded another Presidential Unit Citation. In the Spring of 2006 they redeployed to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. In February 2008 the squadron deployed to Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan as part of the Unit Deployment Program in which they were the first east coast squadron to deploy straight from MCAS Beaufort directly to Yecheon Air Base, South Korea. In September 2008 the squadron returned to MCAS Beaufort. Summer of 2009, and March-October’s of 2014, and 2018 the squadron deployed to MCAS Iwakuni to take part in the Unit Deployment Program. During their 2009 UDP, they provided real-time imagery and reconnaissance during relief efforts in the Philippines following Typhoon Ketsana. In 2014 and specifically 2018 the focus was in the Korea Area of Operations as tensions were heightened throughout the Pacific.
Japanese Crepe Frock
A thoroughly delightful 1920s style and a wonderful bargain in a summer frock of Japanese crepe. Artfully hand embroidered with silk floss on pockets and around neck. Narrow tie sash. Pearl buttons ornament front and fasten dress in back. Colors come in lavender, rose, or blue.
Since 2008 to 2020 each year we have created our own Inflation basket which includes a mix of 30 + items including food, goods and services, one of the many things it shows is inflation as measured by basic food and just 1 gallon of gas is vastly different compared with any government produced figures
1977 U.S.A. Alaska Oil Pipeline
1977 : The almost 800 miles long Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline is completed connecting oil fields in northern Alaska to the sea port of Valdez in the Gulf of Alaska in southern Alaska.
1988 Soviet Union (INF) Treaty
1988 : The Final Summit between President Reagan and President Gorbachev in Moscow on removing Intermediate Range Nuclear Missiles known as the (INF) Treaty ends with agreement on both sides.
1998 UK Spice Girls
1998 : Ginger Spice / Geri Halliwell announces she it to quit the popular Spice Girls over differences between other members of the group.
2000 Fiji Coup
2000 : A coup led by George Speight, an indigenous Fijian who is demanding the removal of ethnic Indians from senior government positions. Members of the coup are holding a number of hostages including the country's prime minister.
2008 Concerns Over Corn Crop in U.S. Corn Belt
2008 : Following an unusually late planting season in the rain-soaked Midwest Concerns over this years crop in the Corn Belt bring further fears that on top of the much increased cost of Gas causing inflationary pressures in the food chain, a poor crop this year could further impact food prices and inflationary pressures in the US.
2012 Canada Interpol Hunt Canadian Killer
2012 : Interpol has added Luke Rocco Magnotta, suspected killer, to their most wanted list. Magnotta is suspected of murdering Jun Lin, a Chinese student who was possibly in a relationship with him, and sending body parts of the victim to political party offices in Ottawa. Magnotta had fled Canada was found by police in Berlin and was taken into custody on June 4th.
2013 Syrian President Warns Israel
2013 : Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, accused of using chemical weapons against rebel forces, has warned the country of Israel against any future air strikes. Assad stated that works on a contract to supply air defense missiles was underway and in response Israel stated that if the defense missiles were used it would attack. Israel had been conducting air strikes in the country in an effort to stop weapons being sent to Hezbollah in Lebanon.
Popular Music from the 1950s, Genres including Rock 'n' Roll, Traditional Pop, Country, Rhythm & Blues, top songs and artists from each year Includes a description of each Genre and the top performers and songs for each year in the Fifties
5 Sweat baths
For centuries, sweat baths have been used medicinally. They can be helpful in alleviating arthritic pain, asthma, and stress. However, they have absolutely no effect on STDs. However, the sweating was believed to be curative, especially when combined with poisonous mercury salves. They skyrocketed in popularity from the 1400s onward, when syphilis was at its height in Europe.
The sweat baths were combined with other &ldquocures&rdquo as well, such as diuretics. This can put patients at serious risk of dehydration. 
The christening of Henry John Temple in the “House of Commons church” of St. Margaret, Westminster, was appropriate. His father, a cultured grand seigneur and dilettante politician, failed in his ambition to convert his Irish peerage into a United Kingdom peerage, which would have condemned his son (known as Harry) to a seat in the House of Lords. Instead, with a break of less than a year (in 1835), Harry Temple was to sit in the Commons from 1807 until he died as prime minister on the eve of his 81st birthday. After two years in Italy and Switzerland with his family, young Temple went to Harrow School in May 1795. Its classical curriculum was supplemented by French, Italian, and some German from a tutor brought home from Italy. In November 1800 Temple entered the University of Edinburgh.
In April 1802 Temple succeeded to his father’s title and estates as 3rd Viscount Palmerston and to a burden of debt that conspired, along with a sense of public duty, to make him seek public office the fact was, he could never afford to be out of office long. He soon began to extend and embellish the house and gardens of Broadlands in Hampshire and, from the mid-1820s, improved his Irish estates in County Sligo. Having survived a youth of ill health, he later displayed a rare stamina, cultivated by regular exercise. Entering St. John’s College, Cambridge, in October 1803, Palmerston was still an undergraduate when he contested the vacancy in the university parliamentary representation resulting from the death of William Pitt in January 1806. He lost then and again in the general election of 1807, but he sat for the University of Cambridge from 1811 to 1831.
History of U.S. Army Weapons
Small arms used by American forces in the Revolution were many and varied, however at the beginning of the war the British Short Land Service Musket, often referred to as the Brown Bess, was perhaps the most common musket on hand. In 1777, the French allied themselves with the American cause and began sending arms and equipment.
Early America 1786-1833
The U.S. Musket Model 1795, the principle small arm used by the Army in the War of 1812, was a copy of the caliber .69, French Model 1763 Infantry Musket. These muskets were made at the armories at both Springfield, Massachusetts, and Harper's Ferry, Virginia. The Model 1795 Muskets produced by Eli Whitney incorporate all of the latest technological features such as a rounded hammer face and slanted pan. Whitney delivered 10,000 muskets to the Army under a July 1812 contract. Muskets manufactured under this contract are marked "N. Haven" on the lock plate.
The U.S. Model 1816 Musket was similar to the Model 1795, but incorporated enough new features to be given a new designation. These muskets were made at the armories at both Springfield, Massachusetts, and Harper's Ferry, Virginia. This pattern of musket will continue in use until the Mexican War.
Mid-19th Century 1833-1850
The U.S. Model 1842 Musket was the first U.S. weapon made at both the Harpers Ferry and Springfield Armories with fully interchangeable parts. It was also the first regulation musket made in the percussion ignition system by the national armories and was the last of the smoothbore .69 caliber muskets. A total of 275,000 Model 1842s were produced between 1844 and 1855, 103,000 at Harper's Ferry and 172,000 at Springfield Armory.
The Caliber .54, Model 1841 Rifle was the first rifle made in the percussion ignition system at a national armory. Until the Mexican War it was only provided to militia rifle companies in various states. The Model 1841 was made by Harpers Ferry Armory from 1846 to1855 with a total produced of about 25,296 arms. The weapon has a 33" browned barrel, which was made without provision for attaching a bayonet. The walnut stock is distinguished by a large patch-box on right side of the butt. Sometimes called the "Mississippi Rifle," it owes this name to the successful use of the weapon by a Mississippi rifle regiment under the command of Jefferson Davis during the Mexican War.
Mid-19th Century 1851-1872 In July 1855, Secretary of War Jefferson Davis authorized the production of a new .58 caliber rifle musket. This was the first rifled weapon produced for general issue by the U.S. Army. A rifle version was also produced to replace the M1841 Rifle. Both the rifle and the rifle-musket were equipped with the Maynard patented priming system which used a roll of caps in a compartment in the lock that advanced when the weapon was cocked.
The carbine was used by the Cavalry and numerous types were used during early part of the Civil War. Three carbines came to predominate by the middle of the war: the Sharps, which fired a .54 Caliber paper combustible cartridge or could be loaded with a bullet and loose powder the Spencer, which was a magazine weapon that held seven rounds of .56 caliber metallic cartridge in a tube in the butt stock and the Burnside, which used a unique tapered .54 Caliber metallic cartridge fired with a standard percussion cap. In all, more than 95,000 Sharps, 80,000 Spencer, and 54,000 Burnside Carbines were purchased.
Late-19th Century 1872-1902
The .45 caliber trapdoor rifle would remain in use with the Regular Army until 1894 and with the National Guard in various states until at least 1905. The version used the most, by both the Regular Army and the National Guard was the Model 1884 with the long range Buffington rear sights. As the supply of socket bayonets began to dwindle in the late 1880s, the last model of .45 caliber rifle to be produced, the Model 1888, had a ramrod bayonet.
The .45 caliber Model 1884 carbine was replace in 1896 with a .30 caliber carbine version of the Krag-Jorgensen, although the trapdoor would continue to be used by the National Guard into the early part of the 20th century. The Model 1896 Krag-Jorgensen carbine was used by the cavalry of the Regular Army and the majority of Volunteer cavalry units during the Spanish-American War. A small number of Model 1898 carbines were produced and issued during the war as well, and in 1899 a newer version of the Krag, known as the Model 1899 carbine would take the regular cavalry into the new century fighting insurgents in the Philippines.
Mid-20th Century 1926-1956
The United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1 (also known as the Garand Rifle in honor of its designer John Garand), was the first semi-automatic rifle in the world to be generally issued to infantry. The Army began looking for a replacement for the M1903 rifle almost immediately following the end of World War I. Research and development continued at Springfield Armory into the early 1930s with numerous problems being encountered. But on November 7, 1935 a new rifle was cleared for procurement and on January 9, 1936 became Army standard as the M1 rifle. However, production difficulties and design issues continued to plague the new rifle. Finally, with the redesign of the barrel and gas cylinder assembly in early 1940, the rifle was ready to go into full production. Output reached 600 rifles a day by January 1941, and by the end of the Army was equipped with the new rifle.
The M1 was a gas-operated, semi-automatic rifle that utilized an eight-round clip which gave United States forces a significant advantage in firepower and shot-to-shot response time over enemy infantrymen in battle. The weapon was the principle infantry weapon used in both World War II and Korea.
The Thompson submachine gun was designed by General John T. Thompson, who started the Auto-Ordnance Corporation in 1916 for the purpose of developing his new weapon. Originally designed for trench warfare the prototype submachine was produced too late for the war. In 1919 the weapon was officially named the "Thompson Submachine Gun" and it was the first weapon to be labeled and marketed as a "submachine gun."
The M3 submachine gun (known as the "Grease Gun"), entered Army service on December 12, 1942. The weapon was produced by the Guide Lamp Division of General Motors Corporation. Even at the development stage, the weapon's design focused on simplified production, employing metal stamping, pressing and welding. The M3 was an automatic-only blowback operated weapon that fired from an open bolt fed from a 30-round detachable box magazine. The weapon had a crank-type cocking mechanism on the right side, and a telescoping metal wire stock, which featured threads at both ends used to attach a bore brush, so that it could be used as a cleaning rod.
The Browning Automatic Rifle (commonly known as the BAR), was designed in 1917 by John M. Browning, as a replacement for French-made light automatic rifles. The BAR was a .30 caliber, gas-operated, select-fire, air-cooled, automatic rifle that fired from an open bolt fed from a 20-round detachable box magazine.
Late-20th, Early 21st Century 1954-2006
The M16 Rifle was the initial version first adopted in 1964 by the United States Air Force. It was a lightweight, 5.56 mm caliber, air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine rifle with a rotating bolt actuated by direct impingement gas operation. The weapon was constructed of steel with an aluminum alloy receiver and a composite plastic stock.
The M16 was ordered as a replacement for the M14 at the direction of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara over the objection of the Army. The Army began to field the XM16E1, an M16 with a forward assist feature, in late 1965 with most going to Vietnam. When the XM16E1 reached Vietnam, reports of jamming and malfunctions in combat immediately began to surface. The XM16E1 was standardized as the M16A1 Rifle in 1967, and improvements to the rifle along with training in proper cleaning diminished many of the problems, but the rifle's reputation continued to suffer. Moreover, complaints about the inadequate penetration and stopping power of the 5.56mm cartridge persisted throughout the conflict.
The M16A2 entered service in the mid-1980s and fired a NATO standard Belgian-designed M855 or M856 5.56mm cartridge. The M16A2 was a select fire rifle capable of semi-automatic fire or three-round bursts. The burst-fire mechanism utilized a three-part automatic sear that fires up to three rounds for each pull of the trigger. The mechanism is non-resetting, which means that if the user fires a two-round burst and releases the trigger, the weapon will only fire a single round the next time he or she pulls the trigger. In theory, burst-fire mechanisms allow ammunition conservation for troops with limited training and combat experience. Other features included an adjustable rear-sight for wind and elevation, a slightly longer stock, heavier barrel, case deflector for left-handed shooters, and rounded hand guards.
A combination of the M16A4 and M4 Carbine continued to replace existing M16A2 Rifles used by the Army. The M16A4 incorporated a flattop receiver unit and a hand guard with four Picatinny rails for mounting optical sights, lasers, night vision devices, forward handgrips, removable carry handle, and flashlights. The M4 was a carbine version of the M16A1 with a small retractable stock and shorter barrel. The M4A1 was capable of fully automatic fire and was used as a submachine gun by selected individuals in situations such as house-to-house fighting.
Between 2003 and 2006, soldiers reported a lack of stopping power with the 9mm ammunition, and problems with the magazines. Testing showed that the 9mm magazines failed due to the heavy phosphate finish called for in the government specification when used in the environmental conditions in Iraq. After corrections were made to the specifications, almost two million new magazines were distributed without any further malfunctions. The 5.56mm M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) was a fully-automatic, gas-operated, magazine or belt-fed weapon. It was used within the infantry squad as an automatic rifle, filling the void created by the retirement of the Browning automatic rifle in 1960, a role that both the M14 and M16A1 rifles had failed to fill. The M249 replaced the M16A1 rifles used in the automatic mode in the rifle squad on a one-for-one. The automatic rifleman supported the infantry squad by providing suppressive fire against point targets in the last 100 yards of the assault. The M249 was also be used as a light machinegun, when fired from a stable position and not required to conduct fire and maneuver with the squad. When used in the machine gun roll, the gun remained with the base-of-fire element.
The M79 was an attempt to increase firepower for the infantryman by using an explosive projectile more accurate and with further range than a rifle grenade, but more portable than a mortar. It was adopted by the Army on December 15, 1960 with the first deliveries received in late 1961. Owing to its ease of use, reliability, and firepower, the M79 almost immediately became popular with infantry soldiers. The M79 could consistently drop grenades into a 24 inch circle, 150 yards away.