Ull Timeline

Ull Timeline


10 largest cities (2012): New Orleans, 369,250 Baton Rouge, 230,058 Shreveport, 201,867 Metairie, 138,481 Lafayette, 122,761 Lake Charles, 73,474 Kenner, 66,820 Bossier City, 64,655 Monroe, 49,156 Alexandria, 48,367.

Geographic center: In Avoyelles Parish, 3 mi. SE of Marksville

Number of parishes (counties): 64

Largest parish by population and area: Orleans, 343,829 (2010) Vernon, 1,328 sq mi.

State forests: 1 (8,000 ac.)

2010 resident census population (rank): 4,533,372 (25). Male: 2,219,292 (48.4%) Female: 2,314,080 (51.6%). White: 2,836,192 (62.6%) Black: 1,452,396 (32.0%) American Indian: 30,579 (0.7%) Asian: 70,132 (1.5%) Other race: 69,227 (1.4%) Two or more races: 72,883 (1.6%) Hispanic/Latino: 192,560 (4.2%). 2000 population 18 and over: 3,415,357 65 and over: 557,857 median age: 35.8.

Louisiana has a rich, colorful historical background. Early Spanish explorers were Alvárez Piñeda, 1519 Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1541. Sieur de la Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed all the land drained by it and its tributaries for Louis XIV of France in 1682.

Louisiana became a French crown colony in 1731 but was ceded to Spain in 1763 after the French and Indian Wars. (The portion east of the Mississippi came under British control in 1764.) Louisiana reverted to France in 1800 and was sold by Napoleon to the U.S. in 1803. The southern part, known as the territory of Orleans, became the state of Louisiana in 1812.

During the Civil War, Louisiana joined the Confederacy, but New Orleans was captured by Union Adm. David Farragut in April 1862. The state's economy suffered during Reconstruction however, the situation improved at the turn of the 20th century, with the discovery of oil and natural gas and the growth of industry.

Louisiana is a leader in natural gas, salt, petroleum, and sulfur production. Much of the oil and sulfur comes from offshore deposits. The state also produces large crops of sweet potatoes, rice, sugar cane, pecans, soybeans, corn, and cotton. Leading manufactured items include chemicals, processed food, petroleum and coal products, paper, lumber and wood products, transportation equipment, and apparel.

The state has become a popular tourist destination. New Orleans is the major draw, known particularly for its picturesque French Quarter and the annual Mardi Gras celebration, held since 1838.

Other major points of interest include the Superdome in New Orleans, historic plantation homes near Natchitoches and New Iberia, Cajun country in the Mississippi Delta Region, Chalmette National Historic Park, and the state capital at Baton Rouge.

On Aug. 29, 2005, Louisiana was hit by Hurricane Katrina, devastating New Orleans, and killing hundreds elsewhere in the state, particularly in the parishes of Jefferson and St. Bernard. Federal and local officials were widely criticized for their slow and inadequate response to the initial disaster and subsequent recovery programs.


The town of Hull was founded late in the 12th century. The monks of Meaux Abbey needed a port where the wool from their estates could be exported. They chose a place at the junction of the rivers, Hull and Humber, to build a quay. The exact year Hull was founded is not known but it was first mentioned in 1193. It was called Wyke on Hull.

In 1279 Hull was granted the right to hold a market and a fair. (A fair was like a market but was held only once a year and lasted for several days). People would come from all over Northeast England to buy and sell at one. n The Church of the Holy Trinity was built by 1285. The Church of St Mary was built in the early 14th century.

In 1293 the King acquired Hull. It was renamed Kingston (king’s town) on Hull. The king wanted a port in Northeast England through which he could supply his army when fighting the Scots. The king set about enlarging Hull. He gave the town the right to hold 2 weekly markets and an annual fair lasting for 30 days. The king also established a mint in Hull about 1300. The same year he built an exchange where merchants could buy and sell goods.

The main export from Medieval Hull was wool. Much of it was exported to towns in what is now Holland and Belgium where it was woven and dyed. Some salt was also exported as well as grain and hides. The chief import into Hull was wine (the drink of the upper classes). Other imports were wood and iron from Scandinavia furs, wax, and pitch (a substance like tar, made from the sap of pine trees).

Although a great deal of raw wool was exported from Hull some wool was woven and dyed in the town and exported. By 1365 there was a weigh house where bales of wool could be weighed. The only other substantial industries were brick making and tile making. Outside the town, walls were brickyards and tile yards. There were also the same craftsmen who would be found in any town, blacksmiths, carpenters, coopers, bakers, brewers, and butchers.

There were also many fishermen in Medieval Hull. They sailed to the icy waters around Iceland. However, Hull was a port rather than a manufacturing center.

In the early 14th century, Hull was given a stonewall and a ditch. There were 4 main gates, one of which was Myton Gate.

Like all other towns, Hull suffered from the Black Death of 1349, which probably killed about half the population. But it soon recovered. By the late 14th century Hull may have had a population of 3,500. By the standards of the time, it was a large and important place. The streets were paved but no doubt they were very dirty, full of animal dung and other refuse.

Early in the 14th century, Hull was run by a steward appointed by the king. In 1331 Hull was given a charter (a document granting the townspeople certain privileges). This gave Hull its independence. From that date, Hull had a mayor. The first was Richard De La Pole, a rich merchant. By the 14th century, there was a grammar school in Hull.

In the Middle Ages, there were friars in Hull. Friars were like monks but instead of withdrawing from the world, they went out to preach. Carmelite Friars (known as white friars because of the color of their habits) arrived in 1293. They live on, of course, in the street name Whitefriargate. From 1303 there were Augustinian friars (known as grey friars) in Hull. The street name Blackfriargate indicates there were Dominican friars (known as black friars because of their black costumes) in Hull.

The church also ran ‘hospitals’ for poor people. In the Middle Ages, there was a Carthusian priory (a small abbey) in Hull and a ‘hospital’ run by the monks.

Trinity House began as a guild. In the Middle Ages, skilled workers were organized into guilds that looked after their member’s interests. The seamen were organized into a guild, which met in Holy Trinity church. They ran a ‘hospital’ (actually an almshouse). They also controlled navigation in the River Humber.

In 1536 came the Pilgrimage of Grace. Many people were angry about Henry VIII’s religious changes and they rose in rebellion. At first, the town council resisted the rebels but eventually, they surrendered and allowed the rebels to enter Hull. However, the king dispersed the rebels by making promises (which he did not keep!).

In 1539 Henry VIII closed monasteries. The friaries in Hull were closed. So was the Carthusian Priory. However, the ‘hospital’ run by the Carthusian monks was taken over by the town council.

In 1541 Henry ordered that there should be improvements to the towns defences. On the other side of the river Hull, opposite the town, Henry built blockhouses or small forts. One was nearly opposite the North Gate. The other stood near the confluence of the Hull and the Humber. Between them stood a larger fort, a castle. A wall joined all three of them. In 1552 the town council was given custody of these forts. In the Middle Ages, there was a ferry across the River Hull. In 1541 a bridge was built near the North Gate.

Exports of cloth continued in the 16th and 17th centuries. The export of grain also flourished. Lead was also exported from Hull. Timber, hemp (for rope making), and pitch were still imported from Scandinavia. Flax was also imported. It was used to make sails. Wine was still imported from France.

As well as trading with other countries Tudor Hull also carried on coastal trade. Coal was brought from Newcastle and some of it was ‘re-exported’ to other parts of Britain. There was also still a large fishing fleet, but fishermen now sailed to Norway and Russia rather than to Iceland. Ships from Hull also went whaling in the Arctic. From the early 17th century there was a shipbuilding industry in Hull.

Like all towns in the 16th and 17th centuries Hull suffered from outbreaks of plague. There were outbreaks in 1537, 1575-76, 1602-4, and 1637. In the last outbreak, perhaps 10% of the population of Hull died including the mayor.

In 1642 the country was moving towards civil war. In April 1642 the king attempted to enter Hull. However, the governor of Hull, a man named Sir John Hotham held a meeting with some parliamentarians in a room in his house known as the ‘plotting room’. He decided to refuse the King entry to Hull.

Actual warfare between the king and parliament began in August 1642. The king was determined to take Hull but the navy supported parliament and the town could be reinforced and supplied by sea. A royalist army occupied the rest of the north of England but Hull remained a parliamentary outpost. In July a royalist army laid siege to Hull. However, at the end of that month, the defenders marched out and routed the royalists. The siege was then lifted.

A second siege began in September 1643. This second siege ended in October when, again, the defenders went out and defeated the royalists in battle. The civil war ended in 1646.

In the late 17th-century trade boomed in Hull. Exports of grain and wool continued to flourish, as did imports from Scandinavia. Shipbuilding also boomed.

In the late 17th century a travel writer called Celia Fiennes described Hull thus: ‘the buildings of Hull are very neat (it has) good streets. It’s a good trading town by means of the great river Humber that ebbs and flows like the sea. We entered the town of Hull from the South over 2 drawbridges and gates. In the town, there is a hospital that is called Trinity House for sailor’s widows. There is a good, large church in Hull’.

In the late 17th century the fortifications around Hull were modernised. From the mid 16th century there had been a castle on the East bank of the Humber with 2 forts or blockhouses North and South of it. The castle was rebuilt and the Southern blockhouse was rebuilt. A new triangular fort was built which included the citadel and the southern fort within its walls.

In the 18th century, Hull was, increasingly, an outlet for manufactured goods from the fast-growing towns of Yorkshire. Goods like tools and cutlery were exported. Raw materials for the industrial towns were imported into Hull. One import was iron from Sweden and Russia. Materials for shipbuilding such as timber, hemp, pitch, and flax were also imported. Exports included grain and other foodstuffs.

There were many whalers operating from Hull. Whales were hunted for their blubber, which was melted to make oil, and for whalebone.

However the port became congested so a dock was built where ships could load and unload cargoes. It opened in 1778 on the site of Queens Gardens. At that time it stood just North of the town. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the walls around Hull were demolished piecemeal.

18th century Hull was not a manufacturing center. The only large-scale industry was shipbuilding. However, there was also an industry grinding rapeseed. They were ground by windmills or horse mills. The oil was used in making paint and soap. There was also some sugar refining in Hull.

In the 18th century, Hull grew very rapidly. The population grew from around 7,500 in 1700 to around 22,000 in 1800. Meanwhile, Maister House was built in 1744. In the last part of the century, suburbs grew outside the old town. North of the town development spread to Sculcoates. In the 1790s new houses were built west of the town.

In 1755 an Act of Parliament set up a body of men with responsibility for paving, cleaning, and lighting the streets of Hull. Five more acts were passed in the next 60 years adding to their powers. A similar improvement act for Sculcoates was passed in 1801 and another for Trippett and Myton in 1810.

In 1735 a statue of King William 1688-1704 was erected. Hull had a theatre by 1743 when one stood in Lowgate. Hull Royal Infirmary opened in 1782. In 1759 William Wilberforce, who campaigned against the slave trade was born in Hull. His house is now a museum. He is also commemorated by a monument by Hull College.

In 1801, at the time of the first census Hull had a population of over 22,000. By the standards of the time, it was a large town. By 1900 it had grown to over 10 times that number. At the beginning of the 19th century, the last part of the wall south of the town was demolished. Wellington Street, Pier Street, and Nelson Street were laid out in 1813.

In 1809 a new dock, the Humber Dock was built. A third dock the Junction Dock was built in 1829. Hull grew rapidly and many new houses were built in North and South Myton and in Sculcoates.

In 1814 a dispensary was opened in Hull where poor people could obtain free medicines. The same year a lunatic asylum was opened.

In the 19th century, the whaling industry in Hull declined and finally ended in the 1860s. But the fishing in Hull boomed. So did shipbuilding. Oil milling and the manufacture of paint continued. There was also a cotton-weaving industry in Hull in the 19th century.

In the 18th century, the streets of Hull were lit by oil lamps during the winter months. However, Hull had gas street lighting from 1822. An electricity generating station opened in 1893 but it was decades before electric street lights replaced gas. The first telephone exchange in Hull opened in 1880. In the 18th century there were night watchmen who patrolled the streets at night but from 1836 Hull had a modern police force. From 1887 there was a volunteer fire brigade. (It became a professional one in 1938).

The first public park in Hull was Beverley Park, which opened in 1860. West Park opened in 1885.

In 1832, in common with other towns, Hull suffered an outbreak of cholera. A second outbreak followed in 1849. Victoria hospital for sick children opened in 1873. In 1881 an outbreak of smallpox in Hull killed 689 people. An infectious disease hospital opened in Hedon Road in 1885.

A School of Art opened in Hull in 1861. A Technical School followed it in 1894. The same year the Central Library opened. Hull was made a city in 1897. Meanwhile, the church of the Holy Trinity was restored in 1869 and again in 1907.

In 1901 the population of Hull was 239,000 and it continued to rise. Meanwhile, City Hall was built in 1909 and the Guildhall was built in 1916. During the first world war, Zeppelins (airships) bombed Hull. One raid in June 1915 killed 24 people.

During the 20th century amenities in Hull continued to improve. Ferens Art Gallery opened in 1927. A new theatre opened in 1939. In the 1920s and 1930s, slum clearance began in the center of Hull. Many new council houses were built on the West, North, and East of the city.

In the early 20th century many houses in Hull did not have flushing toilets. Instead, they had ‘earth closets’ (Basically a pail with a container of ashes of loose earth over it. When you pulled the lever ash or earth covered the contents of the pail. Men came at night to collect the contents and emptied them into a cart). As well as building council houses Hull council converted earth closets to flushing toilets in the early 20th century.

In 1929 the boundaries of Hull were extended to include Sutton and part of Anlaby. In 1935 Queens Gardens were laid out on the site of a filled-in dock.

However, Hull suffered severely in the depression of the 1930s. Many Dockers were unemployed so were many men in the shipbuilding industry. On the other hand, there were some more modern industries such as engineering. During the Second World War about 5,000 houses were destroyed in Hull as well as 14 schools and 27 churches.

In the 20th century Hull imported wool from Australia and New Zealand. Wheat was also imported. So was petrol and wood. Coal and cotton were exported. Fishing boomed. Hull was the third-largest port in Britain and its main fishing port. It was also a major passenger port. In 1970 160,000 people traveled to or from Gothenburg in Sweden or Rotterdam in Holland.

In the late 20th century industries in Hull included flour milling. Oil cake was made in Hull. So were metal boxes, plastic bags, excavators, and caravans.

Hull University was founded in 1954. Then in 1980, a Tidal Surge Barrier was built across the River Hull. The Humber Bridge opened in 1981. n In the late 20th century retail and tourism became major industries in Hull. Prospect Shopping Centre was opened in 1975. The Princes Quay Shopping Centre opened in 1990.

Meanwhile, the Streetlife Museum opened in 1976. The Transport Museum opened in 1989. Hulls Historic Docks were opened in 1991. RED Art Gallery opened in 1997. Hull and East Riding Museum opened in 1997. In 1999 a trawler, the Arctic Corsair was opened to the public, after being refurbished.

In 2001 an aquarium, The Deep, opened in Hull. Furthermore at the beginning of the 21st-century parts of Hull were regenerated. Among the new developments in Hull St Stephens Shopping Centre opened in 2007. Vue Cinema, the first digital cinema in the UK also opened in 2007. Meanwhile, a new business district, Humber Quays, was built on the waterside. The World Trade Centre Hull & Humber opened there in 2008.

Hull Fish market closed in 2011. However in 2017 Hull became UK City of Culture. In 2016 the population of Hull was 260,000.

The History of Pit Bulls

We’ll preface this to say that we HIGHLY recommend Bronwen Dickey’s book, “Pit Bull: The Battle Over an American Icon,” for a fascinating and much more in-depth look at the history and culture of pit bull-type dogs.

The history of the Pit Bull can be traced back to the early 1800’s in the United Kingdom. Pit Bulls were originally bred from Old English Bulldogs (these dogs are similar in appearance to today’s American Bulldog) who gained their popularity on the British Isles in a cruel blood sport known as “bull baiting”. One to two Bulldogs were set to harass a bull for hours until the animal collapsed from fatigue, injuries or both. These matches were held for the entertainment of the struggling classes a source of relief from the tedium of hardship.

However, in 1835 the British Parliament enacted the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835, which prohibited the baiting of some animals such as the bull and bear. Once bull and bear baiting was outlawed, the public turned their attention to “ratting”. This practice pitted dogs against rats in which they were timed to see whose dog would kill the most rats in the least amount of time. The “pit” in Pit Bull comes from ratting as the rats were placed into a pit so that they could not escape. Ultimately, the public turned their eyes upon dog fighting as it was more easily hidden from view and thus the law. Ratting and dogfighting both required more agility and speed on the part of the dog, so Bulldogs were crossed with Terriers “Bull and Terriers”, more commonly known as the first Pit Bull Terrier.

Despite their tenacity and determination in battle, commoners actually bred pit bull terriers with some of the same qualities and traits that we still love about them to this day. Through selective breeding and culling, bite inhibition towards humans was greatly encouraged. Gamblers had to be sure that they could enter a pit and handle their dogs in close proximity without the danger of being bit themselves. If a dog bit a human, it was usually culled.

Shortly before the Civil War, immigrants from the British Isles came to the United States, but along with them came their Pit Bulls. It was during this time that the Pit Bull Terrier breed was named the “American” Pit Bull Terrier. Though these dogs had been specifically bred for fighting, they soon became a much larger and invaluable fixture in a developing nation. In early America, these frontier dogs took on an all-purpose role. They were responsible for herding cattle, herding sheep, guarding livestock and families against thieves and wild animals, helping on the hunts and as hog catchers. Their loyal and loving demeanor with humans, especially children (this is where the “Nanny Dog” myth originated from), earned them a prominent place not only as a working dog but as a companion. Check out our friends at Bad Rap’s, Vintage Photo Gallery.

During the first half of the American century, Pit Bulls remained a prominent part of culture. Public attention turned away from fighting dogs and they began to see them as working-class companions. The USA admired this breed for qualities that it likened in itself friendly, brave, hardworking, worthy of respect and they became, the “All American Dog”. During WWI and WWII, Pit Bulls were used as the nation’s mascot. Their image of bravery and loyalty was displayed throughout advertisements during wartime. The more notable of the first war-dogs was Sergeant Stubby. Sergeant Stubby has been called the most decorated war dog of WWI and the only dog to be nominated for rank and then promoted to sergeant through combat. He served 18 months on the front lines in 17 battles and 4 different campaigns. Sergeant Stubby is just one example of the many other Pit Bulls that have served their country in wartime. Click here for more amazing war dogs!

In addition to their wartime contributions, the Pit Bull became America’s sweetheart. Frequently being used for commercial advertisements and products, in company logos and in popular television shows. Perhaps the most famous Pit Bull was Petey, the adorable ring-eyed cutey featured on Little Rascals. The pit bull was also a favorite among politicians, scholars, and celebrities. Helen Keller, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Edison, Mark Twain, Fred Astaire and Humphrey Bogart, just to name a few, all had pit bulls as companions.

After WWII, Pit Bulls began to be seen more as “regular dogs”. They were given attention neither more or less than any other breed. Surely, underground fighting must have taken place, but it seemed this was a rather small percentage. The vast majority of American Pit Bull Terriers were used for herding, hunting or guardian purposes, but most were bred and kept primarily as companions.

In 1976, Congress amended the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 to address dog fighting, among other issues. This groundbreaking amendment made dogfighting officially illegal in all 50 states. Today, dogfighting is a felony in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In most states, the possession of dogs for the purpose of fighting is also a felony offense. As well as, being a spectator at a dogfight is illegal in all states except Montanan and Hawaii. Unfortunately, many times when an act is made criminal, it draws the attention of criminals.

As dogfighting began to re-emerge in the 1980s, animal advocates put an increased focus on the cruel, barbaric and illegal blood sport. The inadvertent and unfortunate side effect of this new movement was that some people began to seek out Pit Bulls for illicit purposes. The criminal set began trying to squeeze these dogs into a mold they were never designed to fit. The breed who was once bred to treat every stranger like a long-lost friend was now being used as guard and protection dogs and were being fought in underground fighting rings. The demand for pit bulls led to many owners breeding their own dogs without concern for temperament or socialization and for the purpose of making a profit, rather than providing a responsible home. Soon Pit Bulls were associated with poverty, “urban thugs” and crime. They were viewed as money-making commodities instead of family members and companions.

While there is no defining moment in which to point to and say “here is where it all went wrong”, many trace the turning point to 1987 in which a Time Magazine cover story was titled “The Pit Bull Friend and Killer”. Thanks in large part to the media, the All American Dog began to be exploited at new lows and stereotypical images like what was seen on the infamous Sports Illustrated issue, “Beware this Dog”, seemed only to confirm for the public that these dogs were to be feared and should not live in homes. The Pit Bull, seen by criminals as items to be discarded and now being seen by the public as a danger, began to fill shelters at an alarming rate. The media portrayal and demonization of the Pit Bull paved a perfect path for the onset of breed-specific legislation. (The first recorded city to pass BSL was Hollywood, FL in 1980). BSL began to crop up in select places as the dogs began to be used as a political platform by opportunistic politicians. Learn more about BSL here.

Though media outlets successfully created an air of terror around Pit Bulls, there was a spectacular turn of events, though brought about by one of the most horrible atrocities. In 2007, Michael Vick’s Bad Newz Kennels were raided and for the very first time, Pit Bulls had the opportunity to be seen as individuals. Previously deemed as unable to be rehabilitated, pit bulls that were seized were typically euthanized. However, several groups like Best Friends Animal Society and Bad Rap took a chance on these dogs and found that almost all of them (48 out of 51) were able to be placed in foster care or re-homed. The media couldn’t help but take a new look at Pit Bull type dogs when the Vicktory Dogs emerged as successful loving members of society, and the public happily embraced their stories of recovery. And if these fighting dogs could be rehabilitated, what about all the other ones who just got dealt a bad hand or ended up in shelters…

Twenty years after the breed took its first major PR hit in the media, Sports Illustrated returned to show us a different face of the dog, one that invokes sympathy and even surprise from a re-educated public.

Today, Pit Bull type dogs continue to receive more and more positive media attention, due in large part to education and advocacy organization devoted to promoting an accurate image of these dogs. They are loved and owned by several prominent figures such as Jessica Biel, Jon Stewart, Kale Cuoco, Rachel Ray, Jennifer Aniston and many more! They can be seen in the show ring, in various dog sports including agility and weight pulling, in law enforcement work including narcotics detection (check out former Adopt-A-Bull Peaches), in search and rescue, in the armed forces, as service dogs, in our homes and as therapy dogs, like LOVE-A-BULL’s Pit Crew, reaching out and offering comfort to people in hospices, children’s hospitals, veterans programs, women’s shelters, etc.

Our Timeline

In 1901, Ashby Woodson was the first teacher of manual training at the newly opened Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute, now known as UL Lafayette. Manual training was to eventually become known as the College of Engineering.

Under a 1920 legislative act, Dr. Edwin L. Stephens, president of the university, organized departments that would eventually develop into colleges. The new engineering department was part of the College of Liberal Arts.

Between 1930 and 1940, the addition of faculty members and course offerings enabled SLI to form four branches of engineering: chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering.

In 1940, the College of Engineering was officially designated, and Parker Hall was completed in 1940 for engineering and industrial arts classrooms. It was named after John M. Parker, a former governor of Louisiana who initiated a severance tax to benefit education in the state.

The graphic is a sketch representing engineering from the University's 1956 L’Acadien Yearbook.

Dean: George Griffin Hughes, B.S., M.E.
Department of Engineering Faculty:
Professor of Electrical Engineering: Hiram Russel Mason, B.E.E., M.S., E.E.
Professor of Civil Engineering: Carl Harold Kindig, B.S., M.C.E., D.C.E.
Associate Professor of Applied Mechanics: William J. Starr, B.S., M.E., M.S.E.
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering: R. Franklin Parker, B.S. IN M.E.

In 1944, the college had four departments and nine faculty members. Dr. George Griffin Hughes served as the college's dean and the department head for mechanical engineering. This picture is taken from the University's 1944 L’Acadien Yearbook.

The college also became a member of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). Formally known as the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education (SPEE), founded in 1893, the society was created at a time of great growth in American higher education. After the war, the desire to integrate the less research-oriented SPEE with the Engineering College Research Association (ECRA) resulted in the disbanding of SPEE and the formation of ASEE in 1946.

ASEE's mission is to advance innovation, excellence, and access at all levels of education for the engineering profession.

Visit ASEE's website for more information.

Senior picture of Patricia L. Brown, the first female engineering student to graduate from Southwestern Louisiana Institute in1947. She received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemical Engineering. She is a role model for young women with engineering as a career, and promoter of the engineering curriculum.

A Pioneer of the Society of Women Engineers (SWE), Brown served as a lifelong active member and served as the society's seventh president from 1961 to 1963.

For more information on Patricia, please click here

This picture is taken from the University's 1947 L’Acadien Yearbook.

On January 13, 1949, the Engineers' Club of S. L. I. received its charter as Student Chapter No. 1, of the Louisiana Engineering Society. The L. E. S. is com­ posed of members in all branches of engineering and is organized primarily to promote harmony between and interest in all branches of this science. It is the interest of Student Chapter 1 to aid in that object in that it is open to Juniors and Seniors in all branches of Engineering who are in good standing and who maintain an average of "C" or better.

President: VAL. D. BREAUX JR.
Vice President: JULES PATOUT

This picture is taken from the University's 1949 L’Acadien Yearbook.

In 1956, the four engineering curriculums were accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET).

The departments accredited are Chemical, Civil, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering.

The graphics show the logo for ABET in 1956 and the logo for ABET in 2020.

Madison Hall was completed in 1957 as the engineering and geology building. It was named for H. Flood Madison, a past president of the state Board of Education and president of Bastrop Bank from 1900-1926.

Graduate Programs: By 1956, UL Lafayette had received approval for beginning graduate programs, and that was the beginning of the end of the college years. Four years later UL Lafayette became a university.

Pictures shown are taken from the University's 1957 and 1958 L’Acadien Yearbook.

In 1960, the state legislature approved renaming Southwest Louisiana Institute to the University of Southwestern Louisiana. At this time UL Lafayette was composed of a graduate school and six colleges: agriculture, business administration, education, engineering, liberal arts, and nursing. Enrollment was approaching 5,000.

The first master's degree awarded was in chemical engineering in May 1960.

1960, John Browning Finley
"Evaluation of studies of Swenson Research Spray Driver." Library Call #:LD 3091.L665 1960f

This picture is taken from the University's 1960 L’Acadien Yearbook. From left to right:

Dr. Wayne P. Wallace became the Dean of Engineering in 1963. He was formally the Department Head for the Civil Engineering Department. He served as Dean from 1963 until 1971. This picture is taken from the University's 1964 L’Acadien Yearbook.

A curriculum of petroleum engineering was drawn up in 1953 and was accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology in 1963.

The graphics show the logo for ABET in 1963 and the logo for ABET in 2020.

PETE uses life sized well to study gas lift and pump theory. The rig is still in use today and fully functioning, pumping water.

This picture is taken from the University's 1968 L’Acadien Yearbook.

The slide rule has a long and distinguished ancestry … from William Oughtred in 1622 to the Apollo missions to the moon . a span of three and a half centuries … it was used to perform design calculations for virtually all the major structures built on this earth during that long period of our history … an amazing legacy for something so mechanically simple.

Here, Mr. N.E. Jenkins, Professor in Mechanical Engineering, explains the use of the slide rule to his MCHE class.

The slide rule in this picture has been preserved and is on display in the David S. Huval, Sr. Engineering Materials Testing and Development Laboratory - Madison Hall, Room 136-C

This picture is taken from the University's 1973 L’Acadien Yearbook.

The University’s history with the Baja SAE Series goes all the way back to the beginning, when USL were one of 10 teams competing in the first Mini Baja competition in 1976. The University, then known as USL, hosted the second Mini Baja competition in May 1977.

All student chapters of SAE and ASME received invitations to participate in Mini Baja on a “first-come” basis. The number of entrants was limited to sixteen so that the judging and performance events could be comprehensive. Initially, the entries were slow in arriving due to marginal faculty interest, but when the students learned of the competition, their interest was so significant that all the competition slots were full within two weeks. The competition was a two-day event with the first day dedicated to judging the vehicles on appearance, safety, design, and cost. The second day included all the performance events such as hill climb, draw-bar pull, acceleration, maneuverability, and the 15-mile endurance run.

Pictures of books used in the engineering curriculum in 1979.

This picture is taken from the University's 1979 L’Acadien Yearbook.

A CAD/CAM facility added to Madison completed in1986. This same area was renovated in 2020 and is now the David S. Huval, Sr. Engineering Materials Testing and Development Laboratory

This picture is taken from the University's 1986 L’Acadien Yearbook.

In 1987, the department of Industrial Technology became part of the College of Engineering moving from the College of Liberal Arts.

Pictured here is Mr. Lawrence Granger overseeing as the lathe spins out a computerized creation in the CAD/CAM laboratory.

This picture is taken from the University's 1987 L’Acadien Yearbook

Rougeou Hall was named for Clyde L. Rougeou who joined the College of Agriculture faculty in 1937 and then served as the university’s fourth president, 1966-1974.

This picture is taken from the University's 1988 L’Acadien Yearbook

Dr. Anthony Ponter became the Dean of Engineering in 1991. He was formally the Dean of Engineering at Cleveland State University and Professor in Chemical Engineering. He served as Dean from 1971 until 1990. This picture is taken from the University's 1991 L’Acadien Yearbook.

For a while in the 1980s, UL Lafayette literally made a name for itself, The University of Louisiana. A subsequent act of the Louisiana Legislature nullified that name change, but Authement persisted. On September 10, 1999, his perseverance was rewarded when he walked onto a stage before an audience of alumni, visiting dignitaries, administrators, faculty, and students in the Cajundome. There, before several thousand people, with the blessing of the State of Louisiana, he signed an order that changed the university's name to the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. This monumental achievement occurred as part of UL Lafayette's Centennial Celebration.

For more history on our beloved university, click here.

In a long lasted tradition, Engineering organizations have they logos in squares in front of Madison Hall. In 2004, the organizational squares got a facelift. They were again freshened up in 2020.

Dr. Mark Zappi became the Dean of Engineering in 2005. Prior to arriving at UL Lafayette, Zappi held the Texas Olefins Professorship in Chemical Engineering within the Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering at Mississippi State University (MSU). He served as the director of MSU’s Environmental Technology Research and Applications Laboratory. He served as Dean from 2005 until 2019.

This picture is from the University's Photo Collection.

A group of UL Lafayette engineering students participating in the Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment (CAPE) built a small artificial satellite, known as a CubeSat, that was launched into orbit from the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2007. A second satellite, the CAPE-2, was launched into space on the Minotaur 1 rocket in November 2013. The CAPE-2 CubeSat weighed about 2 pounds, had deployable solar panels, and could convert speech to text, tweet messages and send emails.

The picture shows the CAPE-1 CubeSat and is from the University's collection.

The purpose of the Alumni Wall of Honor is to honor and recognize alumni who:

1. Have made significant contributions to the field of engineering and/or technology
2. Serve as strong national/international ambassadors to the UL Lafayette College of Engineering
3. Provided a proven and significant benefit toward mankind
4. Have at least one-degree hailing from the College of Engineering
5. Have advanced the profession

The College of Engineering also sees the Wall of Honor as a mechanism to inspire our students and demonstrate potential career opportunities available to them with a degree from UL Lafayette. We recognize each honoree with a plaque that includes their name, degree, graduation year, a photo, and brief bio about them and their accomplishments.

For more information and to see who is on our beloved wall, click here.

On January 1, 2019 Dr. Ahmed Khattab became the Interim Dean and after serving 18 months, on July 1, 2020, he was named Dean for the College of Engineering and became the college’s seventh dean. Prior to becoming dean, Khattab served as the Associate Dean for 5 years and Faculty, Industrial Technology Department for the previous 8 years. For more information and background on Dr. Khattab, click here.

The College of Engineering currently has 103 faculty members, staff and Dean Khattab.

Ull Timeline - History

Would you like to learn about the interesting people (e.g., Irenaeus, Polycarp, William Tyndale, Martin Luther) and events (e.g., the Council of Nicea, the Reformation) that have helped to shape what Christianity has looked like over the past 2000 years? Check out the following:



The Didache (a concise first century compilation of Christian doctrines)

The Writings of Josephus (first century Jewish historian)


History of the Christian Church
Excellent 15-20 minute podcasts covering key events in church history by Lance Ralston, pastor of Calvary Chapel of Oxnard, in California (Subscribe here on iTunes)

Subscribe here on iTunes to listen to episodes 5 and following!



Could you use help answering atheists, skeptics, and agnostics’ top 50 objections and questions about God and the Bible? Objections like:

• “Why doesn’t God just appear to us in a public setting and prove He exists?”
• “The New Testament authors stole details for Jesus’s life story from religions that were around long before Christianity!”
• “The God of the Old Testament commanded the Israelites to commit genocide!”
• “The Bible condones slavery! Only evil, selfish men would concoct a book like that!”
• “You think Christianity is true because you live in the West and were brought up in the Christian faith. If you had been born in India, you’d be a Hindu!”

Learn how these and other objections and questions can be answered in this updated and expanded edition of One Minute Answers to Skeptics.

New, Updated & Expanded Edition!
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE BIBLE: Discoveries that Verify People, Places, and Events in the World's Most Influential Book

Archaeologists have unearthed thousands of ancient artifacts, documents, and inscriptions that verify details in the Bible. Join Charlie Campbell for a journey through the ancient land of the Bible (Israel, Egypt, Jordan, etc.) to learn about dozens of these fascinating discoveries. This updated 2020 edition features:

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• 100+ color photographs
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This updated edition now includes more than 500 faith-strengthening quotes by leading defenders of the Christian faith.

• Norman Geisler
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Includes author, subject, and scripture index. Paperback, 120 pages.

(DVD or mp4 video download)

Has the Bible been disproved by scientific discoveries? Is the Bible hopelessly out-of-date? Critics of Christianity say yes . But the evidence says no . In this 50-minute video, Charlie Campbell lays out a case for the scientific accuracy of the Bible by looking at several ancient revelations in the Bible that revealed amazing facts about the Earth and the universe thousands of years before the invention of telescopes, satellites, deep-diving submarines, and all the other technology that finally allowed scientists in the last century or two to verify these revelations were correct! This video will surely strengthen your confidence in the accuracy and trustworthiness of the Bible!

ANSWERING ATHEISTS: Concise Responses to Atheists' Objections to God and the Bible
(DVD or mp4 video download)

In this video, Charlie Campbell offers concise 3-5 minute responses to a variety of objections that atheists bring up about God and the Bible. Objections like.

• “ The Bible condones slavery!”
• “God commanded the Jews to commit genocide! ”
• “A talking snake in the Garden of Eden? How do you believe this stuff?”
• “If God existed, He’d appear to us in a public setting!”
• “The Bible was written by men! It’s not trustworthy.”
• “It’s foolish to think a god built a universe billions of light years across just to have a personal relationship with you.”
• “Evolution is a proven fact.”
• “The Bible is oppressive and harmful to women!”
• “Religions, Christianity included, are responsible for most of the world’s wars, suffering, and atrocities!”
• and more! Length: 48 minutes

Amazingly, this tiny USB flash drive contains the entire collection of Charlie Campbell’s 34 DVD presentations (and 37 audio lectures) on a wide variety of issues related to the defense of the Christian faith. And read the reviews—people love these videos! Just plug this genuine mahogany flash drive into the USB port on your television or computer and begin watching any of the videos you'd like. You can also transfer the videos to your iPad, iPhone, or other tablet. We include easy-to-follow directions with your order.

EVIDENCE FOR THE BIBLE: Ten Reasons You Can Trust the Scriptures
(DVD or mp4 video download)

Was the Bible written by deceitful men? Is the Bible out-of-sync with scientific discoveries? Has the Bible undergone corruption as it was translated down through the centuries? Are the persons, places and events mentioned in the Bible mythological? What sets the Bible apart from other religious writings like the Quran, Hindu Vedas, or Book of Mormon? Charlie Campbell has been researching answers to questions like these for more than twenty years. In this updated, expanded 83 minute video he answers these questions as he builds a compelling ten-pronged case for the trustworthiness of the Bible:

• Scientific Discoveries
• Archaeological Evidence
• Fulfilled Prophecies
• The Dead Sea Scrolls
• Extrabiblical Historical Sources
• The Martyrdom of the Disciples
• Problems in the Quran
• Problems in the Book of Mormon
• And more!

Is the Bible a collection of fables and myths? Are the persons, places, and events in the Bible just fabrications by deceitful men? Many critics of Christianity think so, but archaeological discoveries show otherwise. Over the past two centuries, archaeologists have made thousands of discoveries that have helped to verify the exact truthfulness of the Bible's detailed records of various events, customs, persons, cities, nations, and geographical locations. This video by Charlie Campbell will introduce you to several of these fascinating Bible-affirming finds, both old and new. Length: 53 minutes.

SCROLLS & STONES: Compelling Evidence the Bible Can Be Trusted (BOOK)

Can we trust the Bible? Isn’t the Bible just “ancient fiction” written by fallible, perhaps even deceitful men? Haven’t books of the Bible been lost and even tampered with down through the centuries? Isn’t the Bible out-of- sync with scientific discoveries? What about the apparent contradictions in the Bible? What makes the Bible any different than the Hindu Vedas, Quran, or Book of Mormon? Charlie Campbell has been researching answers to questions like these for nearly twenty-five years. It was his initial research that led him to become a follower of Jesus in 1990. In Scrolls & Stones he shares some of the evidence that changed his mind back then but also fascinating new discoveries. all confirming the reliability of the Bible. You’ll learn about:

• Extrabiblical Historical Sources that Verify Biblical Events
• Scientific Discoveries Archaeological Evidence
• Fulfilled Prophecies
• Ancient Scrolls and Manuscripts
• Answers to Skeptics’ Objections and Questions
• Q uestions for further reflection and small group discussion
• F ull subject index

When it comes to Jesus, atheists commonly say:

• There’s no credible evidence Jesus existed
• The authors of the Gospels stole their ideas for Jesus’ life from other ancient religions
• The earliest Christians didn’t believe Jesus was God
• The Gospels contradict one another
• There are scientific errors in the Gospels
• The “Gospel of Thomas” and the “Gospel of Judas” give us a more accurate understanding of who Jesus was
• Accounts of Jesus’ miracles are fabrications

Charlie Campbell responds to these charges and lays out a compelling case that Jesus really existed and the Gospels are trustworthy accounts of His life. Length: 52 minutes.

Is your teen prepared to survive college and a secular workplace with his or her faith still intact? Many teens are not. ABR has heard from so many parents whose kids have walked away from the Lord after heading off to college. And the parents consistently say, "We wish we would have done more to expose our kids to good Christian apologetics and evidences." You probably know the importance of apologetics. You want your kids to be prepared to stand against the onslaught of skepticism they will be confronted with in the world. But where does one begin? What subjects are the most important to address? What authors and resources can I trust? What resources will my teen be able to grasp and enjoy? If you’ve been wondering about these kinds of questions, ABR is excited to let you know that help has arrived. Learn more here.

Did the universe just pop into being from "literally nothing," as Richard Dawkins and other prominent atheists say? Did human beings with 206 bones and nearly 700 muscles come into being by unguided natural causes? Searching out answers to questions like these led Charlie Campbell to abandon his atheism in 1990. In this DVD, he shares some of the evidence from cosmology, biology, philosophy, history, and the Bible that changed his mind. If you have doubts about God, watch this with an open mind! Length: 68 minutes.


Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born into a Punjabi-Arain family in Jalandhar, Punjab Province of British India, [17] on 12 August 1924. Zia-ul-Haq was the second child of Muhammad Akbar Ali, who worked in the administrative corps of the Army GHQ of India Command of British Armed Forces in Delhi and Simla, prior to the independence of India from British colonial rule in 1947. [18] Zia’s father was noted for his religiosity, and insisted that his seven children offer their daily morning prayers and learn the Qur’an. [19] Due to his father's role in the civil service, Zia spent his childhood between the hill station of Simla and Jalandhar as Akbar Ali followed the British administration north during the summers. [20]

After completing his initial education in Simla, Zia attended Delhi's prestigious St. Stephen's College, an Anglican missionary school, for his BA degree in History, from which he graduated with distinction in 1943. [18] He was admitted to the Royal Indian Military Academy at Dehradun, graduating in May 1945 among the last group of officers to be commissioned before the independence of India. [21] During his collegiate years, he was noted as an extraordinary talent. [18] In 1947, while his family was in a refugee camp, Captain Zia was the escort officer for the last train of refugees to leave Babina, an armoured corps training center in Uttar Pradesh, a difficult journey that took seven days, during which the passengers were under constant fire as communal violence broke out in the aftermath of Partition. [22]

In 1950, he married Shafiq Jahan, a relative, and the daughter of a Ugandan-Indian doctor from Kampala. [23] Begum Shafiq Zia died on 6 January 1996. [24] Zia is survived by his sons, Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq, (born 1953), [25] who went into politics and became a cabinet minister in the government of Nawaz Sharif, and Anwar-ul-Haq (born 1960) [26] [27] and his daughters, Zain [28] [29] [30] (born 1972), [31] a special needs child, Rubina Saleem, who is married to a Pakistani banker and has been living in the United States since 1980, [32] and Quratulain Zia who currently lives in London, and is married to Pakistani doctor, Adnan Majid. [33]

Zia was commissioned in the British Indian Army in the Guides Cavalry on 12 May 1943 after graduating from the Officer Training School Mhow [34] and fought against Japanese forces in Burma in World War II. After Pakistan gained its independence through a partition in 1947, Zia joined the newly formed Pakistan Army as a Captain in the Guides Cavalry Frontier Force Regiment. He also served in 13th Lancers and 6 Lancers. He was trained in the United States during 1962–1964 at the US Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. After that, he returned to take over as Directing Staff (DS) at Command and Staff College, Quetta. [35] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Zia is said to have been the Assistant Quartermaster of the 101st Infantry Brigade. [36]

He was then promoted as Lieutenant General and was appointed commander of the II Strike Corps at Multan in 1975. On 1 March 1976, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto approved then-three star rank general Lieutenant-General Zia as Chief of Army Staff and to be elevated to four-star rank. [37]

At the time of his nominating the successor to the outgoing Chief of Army Staff General Tikka Khan, the Lieutenant Generals in order of seniority were: Muhammad Shariff, Akbar Khan, Aftab Ahmed, Azmat Baksh Awan, Ibrahim Akram, Abdul Majeed Malik, Ghulam Jilani Khan, and Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. But, Bhutto chose the most junior, superseding seven more senior lieutenant-generals. [38] However, the senior most at that time, Lieutenant-General Mohammad Shariff, though promoted to General, was made the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, a constitutional post akin to President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry. [39]

Husain Haqqani argues that Bhutto chose Zia ahead of many senior officers for ethnic and caste reasons, thinking than an Arain would not make alliance with the predominantly Pashtun and Rajput military officers in order to overthrow him, and this is also the reason why he let Zia push for more Islam in the armed forces, like when he changed the army’s credo to “Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabil Allah” or when he offered books of Mawdudi to his officers as prizes during various competitions, despite the strong ideological antagonism between Bhutto and the Islamist thinker. [40]

Prime Minister Bhutto began facing considerable criticism and increasing unpopularity as his term progressed the democratic socialists alliance who had previously allied with Bhutto began to diminish as time progressed. [6] Initially targeting leader of the opposition Vali Khan and his opposition National Awami Party (NAP), also a socialist party. Despite the ideological similarity of the two parties, the clash of egos both inside and outside the National Assembly became increasingly fierce, starting with the Federal governments decision to oust the NAP provincial government in Balochistan Province for alleged secessionist activities [41] and culminating in the banning of the party and arrest of much of its leadership after the death of a close lieutenant of Bhutto's, Hayat Sherpao, in a bomb blast in the frontier town of Peshawar.

Civil disorders against Bhutto Edit

Dissidence also increased within the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), and the murder of leading dissident Ahmed Raza Kasuri's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime. PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime. The political crisis in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties remained suspended, and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there were accused of abusing human rights and killing large numbers of civilians. [42]

1977 Parliamentary elections Edit

On 8 January 1977, a large number of opposition political parties grouped, with the help of the United States C.I.A., to form the Pakistan National Alliance [42] (PNA). Bhutto called fresh elections, and PNA participated fully in those elections. They managed to contest the elections jointly even though there were grave splits on opinions and views within the party. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, alleging that the election was rigged. They proceeded to boycott the provincial elections. Despite this, there was a high voter turnout in the national elections however, as provincial elections were held amidst low voter turnout and an opposition boycott, the PNA declared the newly elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. [ citation needed ]

Coup d'état Edit

Soon, all the opposition leaders called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime. [6] Political and civil disorder intensified, which led to more unrest. [43] On 21 April 1977, Bhutto imposed martial law in the major cities of Karachi, Lahore and Hyderabad. [44] However, a compromise agreement between Bhutto and opposition was ultimately reported. [45] Zia planned the Coup d'état carefully, as he knew Bhutto had integral intelligence in the Pakistan Armed Forces, [46] and many officers, including Chief of Air Staff Air Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan and Major-General Tajammul Hussain Malik, GOC of 23rd Mountain Division, Major-General Naseerullah Babar, DG of Directorate-General for the Military Intelligence (DGMI) and Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, were loyal to Bhutto. [ citation needed ]

The coup, (called "Operation Fair Play") transpired in the small hours of 5 July 1977. Before the announcement of any agreement, Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops of Military Police under the order of Zia. [42] Bhutto tried to call Zia but all telephone lines were disconnected. When Zia spoke to him later, he reportedly told Bhutto that he was sorry that he had been forced to perform such an "unpleasant task". [47]

Zia and his military government portrayed the coup as a "spontaneous response to a difficult situation", but his response was a complete contradiction. Soon after the coup, Zia told the British journalist Edward Behr of Newsweek:

I [Zia] am the only man who took this decision [Fair Play] and I did so on 1700 Hrs on 4[th] July after hearing the press statement which indicated that the talks between Mr. Bhutto and the opposition had broken down. Had an agreement been reached between them, I would certainly never had done what I did.

However, Zia's Chief of Army Staff General Khalid Mahmud Arif contradicted Zia's statement when Arif noted that the coup had already been planned, and the senior leadership of Pakistan Armed Forces had solid information. Therefore, Arif met with Bhutto on an emergency basis, stressing and urging Bhutto to "rush negotiations with the opposition". [3] [ page needed ] By Arif's and independent expert's accounts, the talks had not broken down even though the coup was very much in the offing. Zia further argued that Fair Play against Bhutto had been necessitated by the prospect of a civil war that Bhutto had been planning, by distributing weapons to his supporters. However, Arif strongly rejected Zia's remarks on Bhutto, and citing no evidence that weapons were found or recovered at any of the party's election offices, the military junta did not prosecute Bhutto on the charge of planning civil war. [3] [ page needed ]

Immediately, the Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Mohammad Shariff announced his and the navy's strong support for Zia and his military government. But, the Chief of Air Staff General Zulfikar Ali Khan remains unsupported while the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Muhammad Shariff remains neutral, while he silently expressed his support to Prime minister Zulfikar Bhutto. [3] [ page needed ] In 1978, Zia pressured President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry to appoint General Anwar Shamim as Chief of Air Staff and Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979. [49] On Zia's recommendation, President Illahi appointed Admiral Mohammad Shariff as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, hence making the Admiral the highest ranking officer and principal military adviser overlooking all of the inter-services, including the Chiefs of Staff of the respected forces. [49] In 1979, the Chiefs of Army, Navy, and the Air Force, including the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff validated the coup as constitutional and legal under the war-torn circumstances, pledging their support to Zia as well. [3] [ page needed ]

United States sponsorship Edit

The United States, notably the Reagan Administration, was an ardent supporter of Zia's military regime and a close ally of Pakistan's conservative-leaning ruling military establishment. [50] The Reagan administration declared Zia's regime as the "front line" ally of the United States in the fight against the threat of Communism. [50] [51] American legislators and senior officials most notable were Zbigniew Brzezinski, Henry Kissinger, Charlie Wilson, Joanne Herring, and the civilian intelligence officers Michael Pillsbury and Gust Avrakotos, and senior US military officials General John William Vessey, and General Herbert M. Wassom, had been long associated with the Zia military regime where they had made frequent trips to Pakistan advising on expanding the idea of establishment in the political circle of Pakistan. [50] Nominally, the American conservatism of Ronald Reagan's Republican Party influenced Zia to adopt his idea of Islamic conservatism as the primary line of his military government, forcefully enforcing the Islamic and other religious practices in the country. [50]

The socialist orientation had greatly alarmed the capitalist forces in Pakistan and as well as brought a clinging bell tolls alarm to the United States who feared the loss of Pakistan as an ally in the cold war. [3] [ page needed ] Many of Pakistan's political scientists and historians widely suspected that the riots and coup against Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was orchestrated with help of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the United States Government because United States growing fear of Bhutto's socialist policies which were seen as sympathetic towards the Soviet Union and had built a bridge that allowed Soviet Union to be involved in Pakistan, and had access through Pakistan's warm water port something that the United States was unable to gain access since the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. [50] [52] Former US Attorney General Ramsey Clark widely suspected the United States' involvement in bringing down the Bhutto's government, and publicly accused the United States' Government after attending the trial. [52] On the other hand, the United States refused any involvement in Bhutto's fall, and argued that it was Bhutto who had alienated himself over the five years. [3] [ page needed ] While witnessing the dramatic fall of Bhutto, one US diplomat in American Embassy in Islamabad wrote that:

During Bhutto's five years in Pakistan's helm, Bhutto had retained an emotional hold on the poor masses who had voted him overwhelmingly in 1970s general elections. At the same time, however, Bhutto had many enemies. The socialist economics and nationalization of major private industries during his first two years on office had badly upsets the Business circles. An ill-considered decision to take over the wheat-milling, rice-husking, sugar mills, and cotton-gaining, industries in July of 1976 had angered the small business owners and traders. Both leftists—socialists and communists, intellectuals, students, and trade unionists—felt betrayed by Bhutto's shift to centre-right wing conservative economics policies and by his growing collaboration with powerful feudal lords, Pakistan's traditional power brokers. After 1976, Bhutto's aggressive authoritarian personal style and often high-handed way of dealing with political rivals, dissidents, and opponents had also alienated many. [3] [ page needed ]

Postponement of elections and call for accountability Edit

After assuming power as Chief Martial Law Administrator, Zia shortly appeared on national television, PTV promising to hold new and neutral parliamentary elections within the next 90 days [3] [ page needed ]

My sole aim is to organise free and fair elections which would be held in October this year. Soon after the polls, power will be transferred to the elected representatives of the people. I give a solemn assurance that I will not deviate from this schedule. [53]

He also stated that the Constitution of Pakistan had not been abrogated, but temporarily suspended. Zia did not trust the civilian institutions and legislators to ensure the country's integrity and sovereignty [3] [ page needed ] therefore, in October 1977, he announced the postponement of the electoral plan and decided to start an accountability process for the politicians. [54] On television, Zia strongly defended his decision for postponing the elections and demanded that "scrutiny of political leaders who had engaged in malpractice in the past". [54] Thus, the PNA adopted its policy of "retribution first, elections later". [54] Zia's policy severely tainted his credibility as many saw the broken promise as malicious. [55] Another motive was that Zia widely suspected that once out of power the size of the Pakistan Peoples Party rallies would swell and better performance in elections was possible. [3] [ page needed ] This led to request for postponement of elections by the right-wing Islamists as well as left-wing socialists, formerly allied with Bhutto, which displaced Bhutto in the first place. Zia dispatched an intelligence unit, known as ISI's Political Wing, sending Brigadier-General Taffazul Hussain Siddiqiui, to Bhutto's native Province, Sindh, to assess whether people would accept martial law. The Political Wing also contacted the several right-wing Islamists and conservatives, promising an election, with PNA power-sharing the government with Zia. Zia successfully divided and separated the secular forces from right-wing Islamists and conservatives, and later purged each member of the secular front. [3] [ page needed ]

A Disqualification Tribunal was formed, and several individuals who had been members of parliament were charged with malpractice and disqualified from participating in politics at any level for the next seven years. [54] A white paper document was issued, incriminating the deposed Bhutto government on several counts. [54]

It is reported by senior officers that when Zia met federal secretaries for the first time as leader of the country after martial law, he said that "He does not possess the charisma of Bhutto, personality of Ayub Khan or the legitimacy of Liaquat Ali Khan" thereby implying how can he be marketed. [3]

After deposing Prime Minister Bhutto on 5 July 1977, Zia-ul-Haq declared martial law, and appointed himself Chief Martial Law Administrator, which he remained until becoming president on 16 September 1978.

The Doctrine of Necessity Edit

Nusrat Bhutto, the wife of the deposed Prime Minister, filed a suit against Zia's military regime, challenging the validity of the July 1977 military coup. The Supreme Court of Pakistan ruled, in what would later be known as the Doctrine of Necessity (not to be confused with the 1954 Doctrine of necessity) that, given the dangerously unstable political situation of the time, Zia's overthrowing of the Bhutto government was legal on the grounds of necessity. The judgement tightened the general's hold on the government. When Bhutto appeared personally to argue his appeal in the supreme court, he almost affirmed his concurrence with the judges present for not letting off a judgement without imposing some conditions on ruling military government. [ clarification needed ]

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Trial Edit

Former elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was arrested during the coup but released shortly afterwards. Upon his release, Bhutto travelled the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. On 3 September 1977, he was arrested again by the Army on charges of authorising the murder of a political opponent in March 1974. The trial proceedings began 24 October 1977 and lasted five months. On 18 March 1978, Bhutto was declared guilty of murder and was sentenced to death.

In the words of Aftab Kazie and Roedad Khan, Zia hated Bhutto and had used inappropriate language and insults to describe Bhutto and his colleagues. [56] [57] [58] [ full citation needed ] The Supreme Court ruled four to three in favour of execution. The High Court had given him the death sentence on charges of the murder of the father of Ahmed Raza Kasuri, a dissident PPP politician. [59] Despite many clemency appeals from foreign leaders requesting Zia to commute Bhutto's death sentence, Zia dismissed the appeals and upheld the death sentence. [59] On 4 April 1979, Bhutto was hanged, after the Supreme Court upheld the death sentence as passed by the Lahore High Court. [59]

The hanging of an elected prime minister by a military dictator was condemned by the international community and by lawyers and jurists across Pakistan. [59] Bhutto's trial was highly controversial. [59]

Bhutto's last personal appearance and utterances in the supreme court were not merely a long defence of his conduct he also made some matters clear. He mentioned the words of "heir" for his son "Mir Murtaza Bhutto". He made some remark which indicated that he has views similar to a Sunni, though he was Shia albeit a non-practicing one. He also effectively cast doubt on the reliability of star witnesses against him i.e. Masood Mahmood who was a UK-trained lawyer and not merely a police officer and FSF chief. He mentioned repeatedly Lahori Ahmedi connection of Masood Mahmood in his testimony. He repeatedly brought the subject of his maltreatment in the death cell. Bhutto made it abundantly clear, even though indirectly that he wanted either freedom or death, not some thing in between, and appreciated Khar and his lawyer Yahya Bakhtiar. [ citation needed ]

Appointment of Martial Law Administrators Edit

Martial law judges Edit

The Ad hoc appointments of senior justices at the Supreme Court of Pakistan was one of the earliest and major steps were taken out by the military government under General Zia-ul-Haq. [60] Zia had recognised the fact that since, Bhutto had good equations with the governments of the Soviet Union, China, and all the important western countries, excluding the United States. [60] Still, it was a formidable array of sovereigns, presidents and prime ministers and the PPP can be forgiven for making a massive political miscalculations. [60]

After calling for martial law, Zia pressured President Fazal Illahi to appoint Justice Sheikh Anwarul Haq to Chief Justice of Pakistan on 23 September 1977. [60] Immediately, chief justice Yaqub Ali was forcefully removed from the office after the latter agreed to re-hear the petition filed at the supreme court by the peoples party's chairwoman Nusrat Bhutto on 20 September 1977. [60] After Justice Yaqub Ali's removal, Bhutto objected to the inclusion of the new Chief Justice, Sheikh Anwar-ul-Haq, as a chief justice of the Bench on the grounds that by accepting the office of acting president during the absence of Zia-ul-Haq from the country, he had compromised his impartial status. [60] Bhutto also stated that the Chief Justice in his public statements had been critical of his government in the recent past. [60]

The objection was over-ruled by the Chief Justice Anwarul Haq, and the case of Bhutto was again heard by the Chief Justice Anwar-ul-Haq as the bench's lead judge, and presided the whole case of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto while forcing the martial law throughout Pakistan. [60] Shortly, after Zia's return, another judge Mushtak Ahmad also gained Zia and Anwar-ul-Haq's support and elevated as the ad hoc Chief Justice of Lahore High Court he was too part of the bench who retained the death sentence of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto even though Bhutto was not declared guilty of the murder of the political opponent. [60] In 1979, when Zia departed for Saudi Arabia, Justice Haq served as interim president of Pakistan. [60]

Martial law governors Edit

The Zia regime largely made use of installing high-profile military generals to carte blanche provincial administration under martial law. Zia's Guides Cavalry comrade Lieutenant-General Fazhle Haque was appointed Martial Law Administrator of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. Lieutenant-General Fazle Haque was considered a strong vocal General and a strong man. General Haque was the commander of the XI Corps, and commanding-general officer of the Army elements responsible for fighting a secret war against Soviet Union. [ citation needed ]

The second appointment was of Lieutenant-General S.M. Abbasi who was appointed Martial Law Administrator of Sindh Province his tenure too saw civil disorder amid student riots. [ citation needed ] By contrast, third martial law administrator appointment of Lieutenant-General Ghulam Jilani Khan to the Punjab Province made much headway in beautifying Lahore extending infrastructure, and muting political opposition. [ citation needed ] The ascent of Nawaz Sharif to Chief Minister of Punjab was largely due to General Jilani's sponsorship. Perhaps most crucially, final and fourth martial law administrator appointment was then-Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan. Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan was appointed to the post of Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan Province saw the disbanding of the Baloch insurgency, the containment of Afghan Mujahideen, as well as the construction of nuclear test sites in the Chagai District. [ citation needed ]

Zia's tenure saw the influx of heroin, sophisticated weaponry, and countless refugees in from neighbouring Afghanistan. Law and order deterioration was worse after he appointed Mr. Junejo as Prime minister in 1985. [ citation needed ] The government did not locate evidence of Zia having a relationship in the heroin trade, but has been considered. [61]

Zia benefited from the extremely capable martial law administrators who previously had worked with the military governments of former president Yahya Khan and Ayub Khan in the 1960s. [49] One of the notable officers that had worked with him were General Khalid Arief, Chief of Army Staff, and Admiral Mohammad Shariff, Chairman Joint Chiefs. [49] Both were noted by Western governments as highly capable and had wide experience from the military government of the East-Pakistan and remained General Zia' confidential members. [49] [ page needed ] [62]

Both Admiral Sharif and General Arif handled the matters efficiently if the matters were out of control by Zia. In 1979, Zia influenced the Navy's Promotion Board several times after he succeeded first in the appointment of Admiral Caramatt Nazi as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979, and Admiral Tarik Kamal Khan, also chief of naval staff, in 1983. [49] On his request, then-President Fazal Illahi approved the appointment of General Anwar Shamim as Chief of Air Staff and following President's resignation, Zia appointed Shamim as the Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrator. [49] In the matters of serious national security, General Zia had taken the chief of air staff and chief of naval staff in confidence after he discussed the matters with the respected chiefs of Staff. [49] Zia's appointment in inter-services were highly crucial for his military government and pre-emptive measure to ensure the continuous loyalty of Navy and Air Force to himself and his new military government. [49]

Assumption of the post of President of Pakistan Edit

Despite the dismissal of most of the Bhutto government, President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry was persuaded to continue in office as a figurehead. [63] After completing his term, and despite Zia's insistence to accept an extension as President, Chaudhry resigned, and Zia took the office of President of Pakistan on 16 September 1978.

Political structural changes Edit

Formation of Majlis-e-Shoora Edit

Although ostensibly only holding office until free elections could be held, General Zia, like the previous military governments, disapproved of the lack of discipline and orderliness that often accompanies multiparty "parliamentary democracy." He preferred a "presidential" form of government [64] and a system of decision making by technical experts, or "technocracy". His first replacement for the parliament or National Assembly was a Majlis-e-Shoora, or "consultative council." After banning all political parties in 1979 he disbanded Parliament and at the end of 1981 set up the majlis, which was to act as a sort of board of advisors to the President and assist with the process of Islamization. [65] The 350 members of the Shoora were to be nominated by the President and possessed only the power to consult with him, [64] and in reality served only to endorse decisions already taken by the government. [64] [66] Most members of the Shoora were intellectuals, scholars, ulema, journalists, economists, and professionals in different fields.

Zia's parliament and his military government reflect the idea of "military-bureaucratic technocracy" (MBT) where professionals, engineers, and high-profile military officers were initially part of his military government. His antipathy for the politicians led the promotion of bureaucratic-technocracy which was seen a strong weapon of countering the politicians and their political strongholds. Senior statesman and technocrats were included physicist-turned diplomat Agha Shahi, jurist Sharifuddin Perzada, corporate leader Nawaz Sharif, economist Mahbub ul Haq, and senior statesman Aftab Kazie, Roedad Khan, and chemist-turned diplomat Ghulam Ishaq Khan were a few of the leading technocratic figures in his military government. [67]

Referendum of 1984 Edit

After Bhutto's execution, momentum to hold elections began to mount both internationally and within Pakistan. But before handing over power to elected representatives, Zia-ul-Haq attempted to secure his position as the head of state. A referendum was held on 19 December 1984 with the option being to elect or reject the General as the future President, the wording of the referendum making a vote against Zia appear to be a vote against Islam. [64] According to official figures 97.8% of votes were cast in favour of Zia, however only 20% of the electorate participated in the referendum. [ citation needed ]

1985 elections and constitutional amendments Edit

After holding the 1984 referendum, Zia succumbed to international pressure and gave permission to election commission to hold national wide general elections but without political parties in February 1985. [12] Most of the major opposing political parties decided to boycott the elections but election results showed that many victors belonged to one party or the other. Critics complained that ethnic and sectarian mobilisation filled the void left by banning political parties (or making elections "non-partisan"), to the detriment of national integration. [68]

The General worked to give himself the power to dismiss the Prime Minister dissolve the National Assembly, appoint provincial governors and the chief of the armed forces. His prime minister Muhammad Khan Junejo was known as a unassuming and soft-spoken Sindhi. [69]

Before handing over the power to the new government and lifting the martial law, Zia got the new legislature to retroactively accept all of Zia's actions of the past eight years, including his coup of 1977. He also managed to get several amendments passed, most notably the Eighth Amendment, which granted "reserve powers" to the president to dissolve the Parliament. However, this amendment considerably reduced the power he'd previously granted himself to dissolve the legislature, at least on paper. The text of the amendment permitted Zia to dissolve the Parliament only if the government had been toppled by a vote of no confidence and it was obvious that no one could form a government or the government could not function in a constitutional manner. [12]

Economic policy Edit

In general Zia gave economic development and policy a fairly low priority (aside from Islamization) and delegating its management to technocrats such as Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Aftab Qazi and Vaseem Jaffrey. [70] However, between 1977 and 1986, the country experienced an average annual growth in the GNP of 6.8%—the highest in the world at that time—thanks in large part to remittances from the overseas workers, rather than government policy. [70] The first year of Zia's government coincided with a dramatic rise in remittances, which totalled $3.2 billion/year for most of the 1980s, accounted for 10 percent of Pakistans's GDP 45 percent of its current account receipts, and 40 percent of total foreign exchange earnings. [71] [72]

By the time General Zia had initiated the coup against Prime Minister Zulfikar Bhutto, the economic cycle process of nationalisation program was completed. The socialist orientation and nationalisation program was slowly reversed the idea of corporatisation was heavily favoured by President Zia-ul-Haq to direct the authoritarianism in the nationalised industries. One of his well-known and earliest initiatives were aimed to Islamize the national economy which featured the Interest-free economic cycle. No actions towards privatising the industries were ordered by President Zia only three steel mill industries were returned to its previous owners. [73]

By the end of 1987, the Finance ministry had begun studying the process of engaging the gradual privatisation and economic liberalisation.

Soviet-Afghan War and Strategic initiatives Edit

Soviet invasion and Soviet–Afghan War Edit

On 25 December 1979, the Soviet Union (USSR) intervened in Afghanistan. Following this invasion, Zia chaired a meeting and was asked by several cabinet members to refrain from interfering in the war, owing to the vastly superior military power of the USSR. Zia, however, was ideologically opposed to the idea of communism taking over a neighbouring country, supported by the fear of Soviet advancement into Pakistan, particularly Balochistan, in search of warm waters, and made no secret about his intentions of monetarily and militarily aiding the Afghan resistance (the Mujahideen) with major assistance from the United States. [74]

During this meeting, the Director-General of the Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) then-Lieutenant-General Akhtar Abdur Rahman advocated for a covert operation in Afghanistan by arming Islamic Extremists. After this meeting, Zia authorised this operation under General Rahman, and it was later merged with Operation Cyclone, a programme funded by the United States and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). [75]

In November 1982, Zia travelled to Moscow to attend the funeral of Leonid Brezhnev, the late General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko and new Secretary General Yuri Andropov met with Zia there. Andropov expressed indignation over Pakistan's support of the Afghan resistance against the Soviet Union and its satellite state, Socialist Afghanistan. Zia took his hand and assured him, "General Secretary, believe me, Pakistan wants nothing but very good relations with the Soviet Union". [76] According to Gromyko, Zia's sincerity convinced them, but Zia's actions didn't live up to his words. [76]

Zia reversed many of Bhutto's foreign policy initiatives by first establishing stronger links with the United States, Japan, and the Western world. Zia broken off relations with the Socialist state and State capitalism became his major economic policy. US politician Charlie Wilson claims that he worked with Zia and the CIA to channel Soviet weapons that Israel captured from the PLO in Lebanon to fighters in Afghanistan. Wilson claims that Zia remarked to him: "Just don't put any stars of David on the boxes". [77]

Consolidation of atomic bomb programme Edit

One of the earliest initiatives taken by Zia in 1977, was to militarise the integrated atomic energy programme which was founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1972. [78] During the first stages, the programme was under the control of Bhutto and the Directorate for Science, under Science Advisor Dr. Mubashir Hassan, who was heading the civilian committee that supervised the construction of the facilities and laboratories. [78] This atomic bomb project had no boundaries with Munir Ahmad Khan and Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan leading their efforts separately and reported to Bhutto and his science adviser Dr. Hassan who had little interest in the atomic bomb project. [78] Major-General Zahid Ali Akbar, an engineering officer, had little role in the atomic project Zia responded by taking over the programme under military control and disbanded the civilian directorate when he ordered the arrest of Hassan. This whole giant nuclear energy project was transferred into the administrative hands of Major-General Akbar who was soon made the Lieutenant-General and Engineer-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers to deal with the authorities whose co-operation was required. Akbar consolidated the entire project by placing the scientific research under military control, setting boundaries and goals. Akbar proved to be an extremely capable officer in the matters of science and technology when he aggressively led the development of nuclear weapons under Munir Ahmad Khan and Abdul Qadeer Khan in a matter of five years. [78]

By the time, Zia assumed control, the research facilities became fully functional and 90% of the work on atom bomb project was completed. Both the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) had built the extensive research infrastructure started by Bhutto. Akbar's office was shifted to Army's General Headquarters (GHQ) and Akbar guided Zia on key matters of nuclear science and atomic bomb production. He became the first engineering officer to have acknowledge Zia about the success of this energy project into a fully matured programme. On the recommendation of Akbar, Zia approved the appointment of Munir Ahmad Khan as the scientific director of the atomic bomb project, as Zia was convinced by Akbar that civilian scientists under Munir Khan's directorship were at their best to counter international pressure. [78]

This was proved when the PAEC conducted the cold-fission test of a fission device, codename Kirana-I on 11 March 1983 at the Weapon-Testing Laboratories-I, under the leadership of weapon-testing laboratory's director Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. Lieutenant-General Zahid Akbar went to GHQ and notified Zia about the success of this test. The PAEC responded by conducting several cold-tests throughout the 1980s, a policy also continued by Benazir Bhutto in the 1990s. According to the reference in the book, "Eating Grass", Zia was so deeply convinced of the infiltration of Western and American moles and spies into the project, that he extended his role in the atomic bomb, which reflected extreme "paranoia", in both his personal and professional life. He virtually had PAEC and KRL separated from each other and made critical administrative decisions rather than putting scientists in charge of the aspects of the atomic programmes. His actions spurred innovation in the atomic bomb project and an intense secrecy and security culture permeated PAEC and KRL. [79]

Nuclear diplomacy Edit

Unlike Bhutto, who faced rogue criticism and a heated diplomatic war with the United States throughout the 1970s, Zia took different diplomatic approaches to counter the international pressure. [78] From 1979 to 1983, the country was made a subject of attack by international organisation for not signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Zia deftly neutralised international pressure by tagging Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme to the nuclear designs of the neighbouring Indian nuclear programme. [78] Zia, with the help of Munir Ahmad Khan and Agha Shahi, Foreign Minister, drew a five-point proposal as a practical rejoinder to world pressure on Pakistan to sign the NPT the points including the renouncing of the use of nuclear weapons. [80]

(sic). Either General Zia did not know the facts about country's atomic bomb project. Or General Zia was the "most superb and patriotic liar I have ever met. "

Following the success of Operation Opera— in which an Israeli Air Force strike took place to destroy the Iraqi nuclear programme in 1981— suspicion grew in Pakistan that the Indian Air Force had similar plans for Pakistan. [82] In a private meeting with General Anwar Shamim, then-Chief of Air Staff, Zia had notified General Shamim that the Indian Air Force had plans to infiltrate Pakistan's nuclear energy project, citing solid evidence. [82] Shamim felt that the Air Force was unable to divert such attacks, therefore, he advised Zia to use diplomacy through Munir Ahmad Khan to divert the attacks. At Vienna, Munir Ahmad Khan met with Indian physicist Raja Ramanna and notified him that such an attack would provoke a nuclear war between the two countries. [83] In the meantime, Shamim decided to start the programme to acquire the F-16 Falcons and A-5 Fanton jets for the Pakistan Air Force. Shamim launched Operation Sentinel- a counter operation that thwarted the Israeli Air Force attempt to sabotage Pakistan's nuclear energy project—forced Indian Premier Indira Gandhi to hold talks with Pakistan on nuclear issues and directed a high delegation to Pakistan where both countries pledged not to assist or attack each other's facilities. In 1985, following the induction of the F-16 Falcons and A-5 Fantons, Shamim commissioned the Air Force Strategic Command to protect and battle the weapons of mass destruction. [82]

In 1977, Zia ultimately adopted the policy of "Nuclear opacity" to deliberately deny the atomic bomb programmes. This policy of nuclear ambiguity was adopted after witnessing the success of Israel's nuclear programme and on multiple occasions Zia broke his words and promises concerning the nature of the country's atomic bomb project. On nuclear policy issues, Zia deliberately misguided the United States and concealed classified information from the outside world. The United States trusted Zia's sincerity and his promises made to the United States Zia gave assurances to the United States not to produce weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) above a 5% level. However, the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Vernon Walter, confronted Zia on his secret trip to Pakistan in October 1981. Confronted with the evidence, Zia acknowledged that the information "must be true," but then denied everything, leading Walters to conclude that: "either Zia "did not know the facts" or was the "most superb and patriotic liar I have ever met. ". [81]

Nuclear proliferation Edit

Soon after the coup, the clandestine nuclear energy project was no longer a secret to the outside world. Part of his strategy was the promotion of nuclear proliferation in anti-western states (such as North Korea, Iran, and communist China) to aid their own nuclear ambitions, to divert international attention which was difficult. In 1981, Zia contracted with China when he sent weapon-grade uranium to China and also built the centrifuge laboratory which increasingly enhanced the Chinese nuclear programme. This act encouraged Abdul Qadeer Khan, who allegedly tried to aid the Libyan nuclear programme but because Libya–Pakistan relations were strained, Khan was warned of serious consequences. [78] This policy envisaged that this would deflect international pressure onto these countries, and Pakistan would be spared the international community's wrath. [84]

After Zia's death, his successor General Mirza Aslam Beg, as Chief of Army Staff, encouraged Abdul Qadeer Khan and gave him a free hand to work with some like-minded nations such as North Korea, Iran and Libya which also wanted to pursue their nuclear ambitions for a variety of reasons. In 2004, Abdul Khan's dismissal from the nuclear weapons programme was considered a face saving exercise by the Pakistan Armed Forces and political establishment under the then Chief of Army Staff and President General Pervez Musharraf. [85] Zia's nuclear proliferation policy had a deep impact on the world, especially anti-western states, most nominally North Korea and Iran. In the 2000s (decade), North Korea would soon follow the same suit after it was targeted by the international community for its on-going nuclear programme. In the 2000s (decade), North Korea attempted to aid the Syrian and Iranian nuclear programmes in the 1990s. [78] The North Korean connection to the Syrian nuclear programme was exposed in 2007 by Israel in its successful strategic operation, Orchard, which resulted in them sabotaging the Syrian nuclear programme as well as the deaths of 10 senior North-Korean scientists who were aiding the nuclear program.

Expansion Edit

Even though Zia had removed the Bhutto sentiment in the nuclear energy project, Zia did not completely disband Bhutto's policy on nuclear weapons. After the retirement of Zahid Ali Akbar, Zia transferred control of the nuclear weapons programme to Bhutto's close aide Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Soon, Zia promoted Khan as the technical director of the entire programme as well as appointing Khan as his Science Adviser. [78] With the support of handpicked civilian Prime Minister Muhammad Juneijo, Zia sanctioned the launch of the 50 Megawatt (MW) heavy water plutonium production reactor, known as Khushab-I, at Khushab in 1985. [78] Zia also took initiatives to launched the space projects as spin-off to nuclear project. [78] Zia appointed nuclear engineer Salim Mehmud as the Administrator of the Space Research Commission. [86] Zia also launched the work on the country's first satellite, Badr-1, a military satellite. [86] In 1987, Zia launched the clandestine aerospace project, the Integrated Missile Research Programme under General Anwar Shamim in 1985, and later under Lieutenant-General Talat Masood in 1987. [87]

The war legacy Edit

The rise of the illicit drug trade and its spread through Pakistan to the rest of the world increased tremendously during the Soviet-Afghan war. Afghanistan's drug industry began to take off after the Soviet invasion in 1979. Desperate for cash with which to buy weapons, various elements in the anti-Communist resistance turned to the drug trade. This was tolerated if not condoned by their American sponsors such as the CIA. [88]

'Sharization' of Pakistan Edit

The "primary" police or "centerpiece" of Zia's government was "Sharization" or "Islamization". [89]

In 1977, prior to the coup, the drinking and selling of wine by Muslims, along with nightclubs, and horse racing was banned by Prime Minister Bhutto in an effort to stem the tide of street Islamization. [90] [91] Zia went much further, committing himself to enforce Nizam-e-Mustafa ("Rule of the prophet" or Islamic System, i.e. establishing an Islamic state and sharia law [91] ), a significant turn from Pakistan's predominantly secular law, inherited from the British.

In his first televised speech to the country as head of state Zia declared that

Pakistan which was created in the name of Islam will continue to survive only if it sticks to Islam. That is why I consider the introduction of [an] Islamic system as an essential prerequisite for the country. [92]

In the past he complained, "Many a ruler did what they pleased in the name of Islam." [93] [94]

Zia established "Sharia Benches" in each High Court (later the Federal Sharia Court) [94] [95] to judge legal cases using the teachings of the Quran and the Sunna, and to bring Pakistan's legal statutes into alignment with Islamic doctrine. [96] Zia bolstered the influence of the ulama (Islamic clergy) and the Islamic parties. [96] 10,000s of activists from the Jamaat-e-Islami party were appointed to government posts to ensure the continuation of his agenda after his passing. [89] [91] [96] Conservative ulama (Islamic scholars) were added to the Council of Islamic Ideology. [95]

Islamisation was a sharp change from Bhutto's original philosophical rationale captured in the slogan, "Food, clothing, and shelter". In Zia's view, socialist economics and a secular-socialist orientation served only to upset Pakistan's natural order and weaken its moral fibre. [97] General Zia defended his policies in an interview in 1979 given to British journalist Ian Stephens:

The basis of Pakistan was Islam. . Muslims of the subcontinent are a separate culture. It was on the Two-Nation Theory that this part was carved out of the Subcontinent as Pakistan. Mr. Bhutto's way of flourishing in this Society was by eroding its moral fiber. . by pitching students against teachers, children against their parents, landlord against tenants, workers against mill owners. [Pakistan has economic difficulties] because Pakistanis have been made to believe that one can earn without working. . We are going back to Islam not by choice but by the force of circumstances. It is not I or my government that is imposing Islam. It was what 99 percent of people wanted the street violence against Bhutto reflected the people's desire .

How much of Zia's motivation came from piety and how much from political calculation is disputed. One author points out that Zia was conspicuously silent on the dispute between the heterodox Zikri and the 'Ulama in Balochistan where he needed stability. [98] Secular and leftist forces accused Zia of manipulating Islam for political ends. [94] According to Nusrat Bhutto, former First Lady of Pakistan:

The . horrors of 1971 war . are (still) alive and vivid in the hearts and the minds of people of [Pakistan]. Therefore, General Zia insanely . used Islam . to ensure the survival of his own regime.

How much success Zia had using state-sponsored Islamisation to strengthen national cohesion is also disputed. Religious riots broke out in 1983 and 1984. [99] Sectarian divisions between Sunnis and Shia worsened over the issue of the 1979 Zakat ordinance, but differences in fiqh jurisprudence also arose in marriage and divorce, inheritance and wills and imposition of hadd punishments. [100] [101]

Among Sunni Muslims, Deobandis and Barelvis also had disputes. Zia favoured the Deobandi doctrine and so the Sufi pirs of Sindh (who were Barelvis) joined the anti-Zia Movement for the Restoration of Democracy. [102]

Hudood Ordinance Edit

In one of his first and most controversial measures to Islamize Pakistani society was the replacement of parts of the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) with the 1979 "Hudood Ordinance." [103] (Hudood meaning limits or restrictions, as in limits of acceptable behaviour in Islamic law.) The Ordinance added new criminal offences of adultery and fornication to Pakistani law, and new punishments of whipping, amputation, and stoning to death. [104]

For theft or robbery, the PPC punishments of imprisonment or fine, or both, were replaced by amputation of the right hand of the offender for theft, and amputation of the right hand and left foot for robbery. For Zina (extramarital sex) the provisions relating to adultery were replaced by the Ordinance with punishments of flogged 100 lashes for those unmarried offenders, and stoning to death for married offenders.

All these punishments were dependent on proof required for hadd being met. In practice the Hudd requirement—four Muslim men of good repute testifying as witness to the crime—was seldom met. As of 2014, no offenders have been stoned or had limbs amputated by the Pakistani judicial system. To be found guilty of theft, zina, or drinking alcohol by less strict tazir standards—where the punishment was flogging and/or imprisonment—was common, and there have been many floggings.

More worrisome for human rights and women's rights advocates, lawyers and politicians was the incarceration of thousands of rape victims on charges of zina. [90] The onus of providing proof in a rape case rests with the woman herself. Uncorroborated testimony by women was inadmissible in hudood crimes. [105] If the victim/accuser was unable to prove her allegation, bringing the case to court was considered equivalent to a confession of sexual intercourse outside of lawful marriage. Despite this the ordinance remained in force until the Women's Protection Bill was passed in 2006. [106]

Although the Sharia punishments were imposed, the due process, witnesses, law of evidence, and prosecution system remained Anglo-Saxon. [107]

The hybridisation of Pakistan penal code with Islamic laws was difficult because of the difference in the underlying logic of the two legal systems. [90] PPC was kingly law, Haddood is a religious and community-based law.

Other sharia laws Edit

Under Zia, the order for women to cover their heads while in public was implemented in public schools, colleges and state television. Women's participation in sports and the performing arts was severely restricted. Following Sharia law, women's legal testimony was given half the weight of a man's, according to critics. [105]

In 1980 the "Zakat and Ushr Ordinance, 1980" was implemented. [108] The measure called for a 2.5% annual deduction from personal bank accounts on the first day of Ramadan, with Zia stating that the revenues would be used for poverty relief. [109] Zakat committees were established to oversee distribution of the funds. [96]

In 1981 interest payments were replaced by "profit and loss" accounts (though profit was thought to be simply interest by another name). [109] Textbooks were overhauled to remove un-Islamic material, and un-Islamic books were removed from libraries. [109]

Eating and drinking during Ramadan was outlawed, attempts were made to enforce praying of salat five times a day. [96]

Blasphemy ordinances Edit

To outlaw blasphemy, the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) were amended through ordinances in 1980, 1982 and 1986. The 1980 law prohibited derogatory remarks against Islamic personages, and carried a three-year prison sentence. [110] In 1982 the small Ahmadiyya religious minority were prohibited from saying or implying they were Muslims. In 1986 declaring anything implying disrespect to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt (family members of Muhammad), Sahabah (companions of Muhammad) or Sha'ar-i-Islam (Islamic symbols) was made a cognisable offence, punishable with imprisonment or fine, or both. [111]

Madrassa Expansions Edit

Traditional religious madrassass in Pakistan received state sponsorship for the first time, under the General Zia-ul-Haq's administration, [112] Their number grew from 893 to 2,801. Most were Deobandi in doctrinal orientation, while one quarter of them were Barelvi. [113] They received funding from Zakat councils and provided free religious training, room and board to impoverished Pakistanis. [114] The schools, which banned televisions and radios, have been criticised by authors for stoking sectarian hatred both between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims. [112] [113] [114]

Cultural policies Edit

In a 1979 address to the nation, Zia decried the Western culture and music in the country. Soon afterwards, PTV, the national television network ceased playing music videos and only patriotic songs were broadcast. [115] New taxes were levied on the film industry and most of the cinemas in Lahore were shut down. [116] New tax rates were introduced, further decreasing cinema attendances. [116]

It was under Zia and the economic prosperity of his era that the country's urban middle and lower-middle-classes expanded and Western 1980s fashion wear and hairstyle spread in popularity, and rock music bands gained momentum, according to leftist cultural critic Nadeem F. Paracha. [117]

Welfare of the people with disabilities Edit

During his tenure, he oversaw passing of an ordinance for the welfare of people with disabilities. The ordinance is called "The Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981" and it was passed into law on 29 December 1981. It provides the measures for the employment, rehabilitation and welfare of the people with disabilities. [118]

Dismissal of the Junejo government and call for new elections Edit

As time passed, the legislature wanted to have more freedom and power and by the beginning of 1988, rumours about the differences between Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo and Zia were rife.

It is said by some that Zia-Junejo rift was encouraged by late Mahboob-ul-Haq and Junejo's insistence on signing Geneva pact without deciding the composition of next government of Afghanistan before Soviet withdrawal. Junejo also gave Benazir a seat next to him in parleys before that. Junejo did not strengthen the Islamization drive and rather weakened it. His era led to serious disturbances in Karachi and ultimately Karachi went into the secular control of MQM from the clutches of Sunnis Jamaat-e-Islami.

Ojhri Camp blast had irreversibly weakened Zia. Junejo was committed to make an investigation into the Ojhri camp disaster. This couldn't be digested by President as it would expose the involvement of ISI and Zia co- fellow Generals. After defeat of Soviet army, America wanted to audit the ammunition and missiles supplied to Pakistan for Mujahideen, most of which has been stored by Pakistan for future targets against India or other enemies. So Zia planned this event in a very cruel manner , having sacrificed the lives of people of Pakistan for fulfillment of their own agenda.

On 29 May 1988, Zia dissolved the National Assembly and removed the Prime Minister under article 58(2)b of the amended Constitution. Apart from many other reasons, Prime Minister Junejo's decision to sign the Geneva Accord against the wishes of Zia, and his open declarations of removing any military personnel found responsible for an explosion at a munitions dump at Ojhri Camp, on the outskirts of army headquarters in Rawalpindi, earlier in the year, proved to be some of the major factors responsible for his removal.

Zia promised to hold elections in 1988 after the dismissal of Junejo government. He said that he would hold elections within the next 90 days. The late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's daughter Benazir Bhutto had returned from exile earlier in 1986, and had announced that she would be contesting the elections. With Bhutto's popularity somewhat growing, and a decrease in international aid following the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, Zia was in an increasingly difficult political situation.

Zia died in a plane crash on 17 August 1988. After witnessing a US M1 Abrams tank demonstration in Bahawalpur, Zia had left the small town in the Punjab province by C-130B Hercules aircraft. The aircraft departed from Bahawalpur Airport and was expected to reach Islamabad International Airport. [119] Shortly after a smooth takeoff, the control tower lost contact with the aircraft. Witnesses who saw the plane in the air afterward claim it was flying erratically, then nosedived and exploded on impact. In addition to Zia, 31 others died in the plane crash, including chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Akhtar Abdur Rahman, close associate of Zia, Brigadier Siddique Salik, the American Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Lewis Raphel and General Herbert M. Wassom, the head of the US Military aid mission to Pakistan. [120] [121] Ghulam Ishaq Khan, the Senate chairman announced Zia's death on radio and TV. Conditions surrounding his death have given rise to many conspiracy theories. [122] There is speculation that the United States, India, the Soviet Union (in retaliation for Pakistani support of the mujahideen in Afghanistan) or an alliance of them and internal groups within Zia's military were behind the incident. [123] [124]

A board of inquiry was set up to investigate the crash. It concluded 'the most probable cause of the crash was a criminal act of sabotage perpetrated in the aircraft'. It also suggested that poisonous gases were released which incapacitated the passengers and crew, which would explain why no Mayday signal was given. [125] There was also speculation into other facts involving the details of the investigation. A flight recorder (black box) was not located after the crash even though previous C-130 aircraft did have them installed. [126]

Maj. Gen. (retd) Mahmud Ali Durrani, who was suspected by many circles within Pakistan and also by the then United States Ambassador to India, John Gunther Dean, for being "extraordinarily insistent" with President Zia to visit the demonstration, is considered to be the prime suspect in the incident. [127] He claimed later that reports of Israeli and Indian involvement in Zia's plane crash were only speculations and he rejected the statement that was given by former president Ghulam Ishaq Khan that the presidential plane was blown up in the air. Durrani stated that Zia's plane was destroyed while landing. [128]

Lt. General Hameed Gul, the head of Pakistan’s Inter Services Intelligence agency at the time, suggested that the United States might be responsible, even though the U.S. Ambassador and military attaché were also killed. He told The Times that the Pakistani President was killed in a conspiracy involving a "foreign power". [129]

Funeral and aftermath Edit

Well, he was a great loss. He is a martyr, and was a great man.

His funeral was held on 19 August 1988 near Islamabad. As a 21-gun salute of light artillery resounded off the lush Margalla Hills, nearly one million mourners joined in chants of "Zia ul-Haq, you will live as long as the sun and moon remain above." His remains were laid to rest in a 4-by-10-foot dirt grave in front of the huge, modern Faisal Mosque that Zia had built as a symbol of Pakistani-Saudi friendship. [131] Also in attendance was his successor President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, chiefs of staff of armed forces, chairman joint chiefs, and other high military and civil officials. Former US Secretary of State George P. Shultz also laid a floral wreath at Zia's grave. [132]

Public image Edit

Even after his death, Zia-ul-Haq remained a highly polarizing and widely discussed figure in the country's intellectual and political circles. [133] Out of the country's short history, Zia-ul-Haq's legacy remains a most toxic, enduring, and tamper-proof legacy, according to the editorial written in Dawn. [133] Historians and political scientists widely discussed and studied his policy making skills, some authors noting him as "The Ringmaster", [134] "Master of Illusion" [135] and "Master Tactician". [136] However, his most remembered and enduring legacy was his indirect involvement and military strategies, by proxy supporting the Mujahideen, against the USSR's war in Afghanistan. [137] His reign also helped the conservatives to rise at the national politics against Benazir Bhutto. [137] He is also noted as being one of Pakistan's most successful generals, placing the armed forces in charge of the country's affairs. [138] During his regime, western styles in hair, clothing, and music flooded the country. [117] The 1980s gave birth to Pakistani rock music, which expressed Pakistani nationalism in the country. [117]

Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan Edit

With the passing of Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (2010), The executive powers General Zia had legislated were permanently deleted from the Constitution of Pakistan. [139] [140]

Zia has been portrayed in English language popular culture a number of times including:

GEICO's Story From the Beginning

In the mid-1930s, at the height of the Great Depression, there weren't many people with the foresight and courage to start up a new company. Yet the husband and wife team of Leo and Lillian Goodwin were up to the challenge. Confident that he could create a successful auto insurance business by marketing directly to carefully targeted customer groups, Leo Goodwin hammered out a business plan during his early career in Texas.

In 1936, he put that plan into action, establishing the Government Employees Insurance Company&mdashthe company known and loved today as GEICO. Few people realize that GEICO was initially targeted to federal employees and certain categories of enlisted military officers.

Lillian Goodwin energetically marketed the company to this audience (in addition to doing the accounting, setting rates, and underwriting) and within a year, GEICO had written 3,700 policies and hired 12 staff members.

New Decade, New Investors: Enter Warren Buffett

In 1948, a pivotal figure joined the company. Lorimer Davidson, an investment banker and a friend of the Goodwins, helped them find new investors when the original investors chose other opportunities. Among those new investors was Benjamin Graham, a business professor at Columbia University in New York, who would one day find Warren Buffett in his class. The link between GEICO and Warren Buffett was thereby established, and in 1951 Buffett made his first official appearance in GEICO's history.

Interested in the company, Warren Buffett took the train to Washington on a Saturday to learn more about GEICO and found that the office was closed. Fortunately, a janitor directed him to Davidson, and the two had an impromptu meeting that would ultimately have a greater impact on the company than either man could have realized at the time. After speaking with Davidson, Buffett learned enough to make his first purchase of GEICO stock.

When Leo Goodwin chose to retire in 1958, he named Davidson to be his successor. It was Davidson who would preside at the opening of new GEICO headquarters in Chevy Chase, MD in 1959 after more than 20 years of steady growth.

Growing Pains

The 1960s proved to be similarly successful. GEICO experienced virtually unbroken growth, passing the 1 million policyholder mark in 1964. Insurance premiums reached $150 million in 1965. Net earnings doubled to $13 million in 1966. GEICO opened a number of sales and service offices for walk-in customers and its first drive-in claims office in 1965.

The 1970s, however, were not nearly so good to the company. At the beginning of the decade, both Leo and Lillian Goodwin passed away, and the loss of the company's founders seemed to usher in difficult times for GEICO. By the mid-70s, the years of aggressive expansion were starting to show some weaknesses in the company's loss reserves. It led to a difficult period for the company.

GEICO used the experience to strengthen its underwriting and reserving activities which helped build the company's current reputation as a fiscally superior organization. Warren Buffett made another appearance in 1976 for a second purchase of GEICO stock, reported to total 1 million shares.

Prudent underwriting prevailed in the 1980s and expansion continued. GEICO introduced 24-hour a day, 365-day a year telephone service for claims, sales and service in 1980 as its emphasis on customer service deepened.

A New Chairman, a Bold Vision

In 1993, Olza "Tony" Nicely was named GEICO's new chairman, president and CEO, and worked to expand the customer base through a new four-company strategy. Along with it came an increased advertising budget which propelled GEICO toward much higher national visibility.

Warren Buffett liked what he saw. In 1995, his Berkshire Hathaway investment firm made a generous bid for the remaining shares of GEICO's outstanding stock, and by 1996, GEICO was a subsidiary of one of the most profitable organizations in the country.

That led to national advertising on an enormous scale. GEICO's ads and direct mail pieces flooded the airwaves and filled mailboxes around the country and the company's growth shot upward. The GEICO Gecko ® made its first appearance during the 2000 television season and quickly became an advertising icon.

Meanwhile, in 2001, Leo Goodwin was named to the International Insurance Society Hall of Fame, and by 2002, GEICO had passed the 5 million policyholder mark.

Continued Expansion, and a Civilized Caveman

In August 2004, GEICO declared the "good news" about re-entering the New Jersey auto market at a press conference in Trenton that made local, regional and national news. That was also the year that GEICO introduced the Cavemen to television audiences in order to drive home the point that using geico.com was "so easy even a caveman can do it." The rest, as they say, is advertising history.

Later that year, GEICO broke ground for a new office in Buffalo, NY to help handle GEICO's thriving business, and by December, company growth pushed GEICO to 6 million policyholders. Building activities in Buffalo were completed in 2005 and associates moved into their new 250,000-square-foot regional center following a grand opening ceremony in October.

Adding Services&mdashOnline and on the Ground

In 2006, GEICO marketing efforts, expanding Internet capabilities and customer outreach combined to attract the company's 7 millionth policyholder. GEICO's success continued throughout 2007 as the company grew to 8 million policyholders.

GEICO Auto Repair Xpress ® rolled into more than 400 repair shops around the nation, giving policyholders a full service package of extras like onsite Shop Representatives and rental vehicle reservation services.

GEICO introduced several new product lines. Of these, the Powersports unit got off to a good start, driven by the well-established and highly successful motorcycle group.

GEICO Ad Icons Reach Celebrity Status

While GEICO continued its solid growth, its beloved ad icons began to garner accolades of their own. By 2007, the Cavemen were not only featured in new ads, but also on an interactive Web site that showed off their contemporary and very hip lifestyle.

Meanwhile, the Gecko took on an extra job and became the spokescreature for a national touring gecko exhibit at several zoos and aquariums around the country in order to promote wildlife conservation efforts.

In 2008, the Caveman was voted America's favorite advertising icon of the year and joined the GEICO Gecko on the Advertising Week Walk of Fame. The Caveman, still perturbed with GEICO for its "So easy, a caveman can do it" slogan, did not attend the award ceremony.

GEICO Lately

2009 was another rewarding time for GEICO as associates celebrated a welcome growth spurt by reaching 9 million GEICO policyholders early in the year. This was also the year that the company set its sights on Massachusetts drivers and put out the "Open for Business" sign in the Bay State in May. Now GEICO is truly a national company, providing coverage for drivers in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. To help customers further, GEICO opened a second location in Buffalo, NY for its growing GEICO Insurance Agency operations, offering homeowners, renters, boat and other types of insurance coverage.

In 2010, GEICO provided mobile users with a first in the insurance industry&mdashthe ability to quote and buy a policy from mobile-friendly pages on their iPhone and Android mobile devices.

Growth continued in 2012 as a new milestone of 11 million GEICO policyholders was reached early in the year, and the company would add another 3 million over the next four years and become the nation's second-largest auto insurer.

And then things really took off! For 12 consecutive months, from July 2016 through June 2017, GEICO set monthly records for sales and growth, adding its 15 millionth and 16 millionth policies during 2017, and its 17 millionth early in 2019.

The Next Chapter

Who knows if GEICO founders Leo and Lillian Goodwin could have foreseen the incredible heights that their company would reach? Could they have imagined that GEICO would become the largest auto insurer in Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia?* Would they have thought the company could grow to more than 40,000 associates in 17 major locations throughout the country offering insurance in all 50 states and the District of Columbia?

And would they be able to imagine what would happen in GEICO's next chapter? Maybe, maybe not, but one thing hasn't changed about GEICO since 1936: the company's future looks bright. No matter what the coming years hold, GEICO will remain committed to the values on which it was founded: excellent coverage, low prices, and outstanding customer service.

Economic Crisis & Abatement

Kibbutz Ruhama in the Negev, between 1940 and 1950. (PikiWiki Israel)

The kibbutz movement continued to thrive both economically and socially through the 1960s and &rsquo70s. In 1989, the population of Israel&rsquos kibbutzim reached its peak at 129,000 people living on 270 kibbutzim, about 2 percent of Israel&rsquos population.

But high inflation and interest rates led to economic crisis for many kibbutzim. In the 1980s and &rsquo90s, many kibbutzim declared bankruptcy and thousands of kibbutz members defected. In keeping with an increasing trend of individualism in Israel and world-wide, these former kibbutz members sought new opportunities in Israeli cities, and some left Israel altogether.

The kibbutz movement needed to redefine itself in order to survive economically and attract new members. And so, at the start of the 21st century, 179 of Israel&rsquos 270 kibbutzim privatized. Instead of doing away entirely with personal property, members of privatized kibbutzim pay the kibbutz a progressive rate of their income. This ensures that differences in earnings on a kibbutz are still much smaller than in Israeli society as a whole. Privatized kibbutzim use their communal coffers to take care of the elderly, sick, and those otherwise unable to earn high wages, and they also provide for health care, education, and culture for their members.

This arrangement has rescued the kibbutzim economically, bringing most out of a state of crisis, and made kibbutzim more attractive to new members. Today, thousands of Israelis are coming back to the kibbutzim, including children who grew up on kibbutz and later left to seek other opportunities. Many kibbutzim have long waiting lists for membership.

History of Red Bull

The original Red Bull drink was developed in 1962 by Chaleo Voovidhya, a Thai businessman, and sold under the name Krating Daeng (Thai for Red Bull) by the company TC Pharmaceutical. The recipe was based on Lipovitan, an earlier energy drink that had been introduced to Thailand from Japan. Krating Daeng sales soared across Asia in the 1970’s and 1980’s, especially among truck drivers, construction workers and farmers. The working class image was boosted by sponsorship of Thai boxing matches, where the logo of two red bulls charging each other was often on display.

The Thai product was transformed into a global brand by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur. Mateschitz was international marketing director for Blendax, a German toothpaste company, when he visited Thailand in 1982 and discovered that Krating Daeng helped to cure his jet lag. Between 1984 and 1987, Mateschitz worked with TC Pharmaceutical (a Blendax licensee) to adapt Krating Daeng for European audiences. At the same time Mateschitz and Voovidhya founded Red Bull GmbH each investing $500,000 of savings and taking a 49% stake in the new company. They gave the remaining 2% to Yoovidhya’s son Chalerm, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. Red Bull GmbH launched the “Austrian” version of Red Bull in 1987, which is carbonated and not as sweet as the original Thai recipe. It is the Austrian formula that has taken almost half of the US market for energy drinks, and up to 80% of the market in some other countries.

In addition to owning half of Red Bull GmbH, Chaleo and his son continue to market the original formula across Asia. In 2006, Forbes Magazine listed Chaleo as being the 292 richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of over $2.5 billion while Mateschitz was listed at number 317.

The architecturally spectacular headquarters of Red Bull GmbH are located in Fuschl am See, Austria.

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