Aztec Gods

The Aztecs had a polytheistic religion which was rich in mythology and rituals. Given the nature of religion, they worshiped a variety of different gods and each god had unique powers associated with him. In addition to gods, there were also goddesses who had power over specific aspects of nature.

There were some Aztec gods who were more powerful than the others and then there were many gods of lesser powers. With the expansion of the Aztec Empire, the Aztecs constantly included new gods in their pantheon, absorbing the religious beliefs of the neighbouring city-states.

So the Aztecs Crossed the Atlantic to Attack the Roman Empire

Xochipilli gazed at the burning city. His grin from ear to ear was only the tip of his happiness. The Romans were impossible to defeat, they said. The Romans were too large to fall, they said. But here he was. On the burning remains of the capital of the second mightiest nation of all time.

There were only one concern. He had not met the Imperator, apparently Rome’s greatest ruler. From his scouting missions to the start of his invasion through the straits of Gibraltar, he had heard whispers about the Augustus. About the next nation that the Imperium would conquer. About the riches and glory the ruler bought to the Empire. About the morale and discipline of the legions that willingly died for their Imperator. But he was disappointed. There was no sign of the Imperator. Maybe the rumors were exaggerated. Perhaps he abandoned his people, his city, the capital of Rome.

It had been a long day. The Romans had put up a good fight. Their legion were all composed of brave, disciplined men. They all fought as if they had a single mind, and defended their homes like no other. But they were no match for the Aztecs. Xochipilli, like many of his kin, was tossed and raised in the wilds. He had seen his brothers die. And then he realized they were stupid. Stupid and weak. Only the strong were allowed to live. The rest should be sacrificed to the Gods.

Speaking of the Gods, they would be happy today. The sun would live for a few more cycles. There was still some women left that his soldiers enjoyed. Maybe he too would enjoy seeing how wide Roman women could spread their legs. He saw a young woman on the ground. Clever girl, only pretending to be dead. She screamed when Xochipilli grabbed her hair and dragged her across the ground. Ugh. He hated noisy women. She should be proud that she would be getting the seed of an Aztec Prince.

“No! Don’t touch her!” an old man screamed. Xochipilli was only amused as the man in heavy white clothes hobbled over, trying to punch him with his weak, pathetic fists. The old man had a funny hat which fell to the mud. The Aztec chuckled as he didn’t even need to block the blows to his naked, glorious chest. The old man’s eyes weren’t even open. He seemed like he was scared of trying to punch.

“Is this your daughter, old man?” Xochipilli said in perfect Latin. He picked it up on the initial missions to Europe to see if the Romans were open to submission. It was funny seeing the Romans look flabbergasted when he spoke their tongue.

“No,” the old man said, his punches getting weaker and weaker. He gave one more tired punch before he stooped to his knees, coughing a mixture of phlegm and blood. “But I’ve had enough. Rape her, and that’ll be the last thing you will do.”

“Empty words for a man full of spirit,” Xochipilli said, laughing. “And who will stop me? Let me guess: you? Your savior, Jesus Christ? Or your God?”

“No,” he said, shaking his head. “The Imperator.”

“Ah. Yes,” Xochipilli said. He was already in a good mood, and this almost burst him into full laughter. “Your so-called Imperator. Your leader who isn’t defending you. Your leader who abandoned your capital in the greatest time of need.”

Xochipilli spread his arms wide at the carnage around him. Buildings were being burnt into unrecognizable debris. Nearby, one of his captains ripped out the still-beating heart of a crippled legionnaire. His raiders looted the coliseums, shops, and churches, endless treasures and food to power the Great Aztec army.

“Is this not your capital?” Xochipilli said. “Rome, the city Romulus and Remus founded along the banks of the Tiber River? Rome, where Julius Caesar was stabbed?”

The woman whose hair he was grabbing looked confused. “Rome isn’t the capital. Constantinople is.”

Xochipilli blinked. “Woman, are you telling me the capital of the Roman Empire, the Imperium Romanum, the Empire of the Romans, isn’t Rome?”

The old man shook his head. “It’s surprising you know so much history but don’t know this. Roma hasn’t been the capital for centuries. It’s too easy to invade. Even Ravenna is the capital of Italia.”

“Never mind that,” Xochipilli said. He made a mental note to set a course to Constantinople. “But your Imperator will not save you. His legion has been defeated here. The Gods do not favor him. He might as well surrender before the rest of the city has been taken.”

“I don’t think there’s been enough time to send a messenger to Constantinople,” the old man said, still looking confused. “And even if there has, the Augustus wouldn’t have had enough time to raise and send the legions.”

“Legions?” Xochipilli said. “Plural?”

“Well, yeah,” the girl said. “The legion you’ve fought was the 1st legion, the only legion in Italia. There’s over 1000 legions in the Empire. It takes a while to organize everyone.”

Xochipilli was caught off guard, but then he scoffed. “Silly woman. Do not join the conversation of men. You are telling such obvious lies. The legion of the Imperium is strong. I’ll acknowledge that. They cut the entire army of the Great Aztec Empire into half. But for that army to be 0.1 percent of your full strength? Ha. Nonsense. I have led this army to conquer the entire North American continent. To think it would have a close battle with an insignificant portion of your army is nonsensical.”

“More insignificant than usual,” the old man grunted. “The Black Plague swept through the Empire recently.”

“Aww, are the weak Roman people stopped by a little cold?” Xochipilli said.

The old man was silent. He seemed like he was contemplating. His eyelids were still closed.

“Are you Aztecs always so cruel?” the woman cried out. “I’ve only read of such comically evil people in books! People who think of women as just tools! Even the Mongols had some reason. Please, have mercy. I’ll add you to my prayers. I already pray for the Imperator every night—adding you wouldn’t be too much more.”

“Wait, you know how to read?” Xochipilli said, only paying attention to that part. He was still pulling her hair.

“…yes?” she said. “Everybody in the Imperium knows how to read.”

Xochipilli scoffed at that. “What is the point of that? Peasants don’t need to know how to read. You don’t need to know how to know to read to hunt. You don’t need to know read to fight.”

There was a small giggle, and then the woman placed her hands over her mouth, looking horrified.

“…what was that?” Xochipilli hissed.

“Nothing,” the woman squeaked.

“You, a mere woman, was making a fool out of me,” he said. “Is it because I don’t know how to read and you do? Do you think you are better than me, a royal Prince of the Aztecs, the Emperor’s firstborn son? You don’t even deserve to bear my children.”

And with that he pulled his knife. Thrusting it into the woman’s throat, she coughed out blood as he ripped out her heart with his bare hands. She didn’t even get the chance to scream.

“Annoying woman,” Xochipilli said, crushing the beating organ. He could feel the liquid drain under his fingernails. “You treat your woman too leniently, Roman. That is why they talk back to you so much.”

“You fool,” the old man said, horrified. “You killed a Palaiologos. A princess who has the blood of the Augustus. The Imperator will have your blood for that.”

Xochipilli scoffed. “A man as great as your Imperator wouldn’t care. Daughters are only useful for alliances. I am glad to see both sides of the Great Ocean think this.”

The old man looked like he was about to protest. But the lines on his face relaxed, and it looked like he was pondering deeply. And then, he said, “It seems like you’ve been reading some very old history books.”

“Yes,” the Aztec said. “History books by Caesar, Livy, Sallust, Tacitus, and Suetonius. It is important to know your enemy. I’ve discovered old books about history tell very much about the cultures that laid the foundation for an empire.”

“Well, you seem very interested in our Imperator.”

“Yes,” Xochipilli said, his eyes twinkling. “I am disappointed I didn’t meet him in Rome. Crushed, even. But the news that I can still sacrifice his ambitious, glorious, worthy heart to the Gods wipes away my weariness. That is, if he isn’t a coward.”

“The Imperator is not a coward.”

“Are the rumors true, then?” Xochipilli said. “Old man, do not lie to me. Your life hangs in the balance. But I and the Gods will be very disappointed if the Imperator’s soul doesn’t contain enough essence.”

“Very true. In fact, the truth is stranger than the fiction.”

“Is it true that when he was born he was supposed to be a puppet, only installed due to scheming nobles and conniving eunuchs? And he seized actual power not due to intrigue, bribes, or raw power, but due to diplomacy, kindness, and forgiveness?”

“Yes. It is remarkable that it worked. But the Imperator is very wise and charming.”

“Is it true that he conquered the entirety of the known world? A landmass while, probably not as big as the Americas, is still worthy of acknowledgement?”

“No,” the old man said. “Evidently, the world is bigger than we thought. The Mongols know of lands that we didn’t know existed, and you came from across the sea. But yes, the Imperium stretches farther than any other empire in history.”

“Is it true that for every country he conquered, he would carve as wound on his wrist?”

“Yes. The Imperator’s clothes always left the wrist open so everybody could see. The Augustus says it is to feel the pain of every country being conquered.”

"Is it true he once taught a blind boy how to pray?”

“Yes. The boy even said he couldn’t remember very well. So the Augustus taught a prayer that was only three words.”

“I’ve read your holy text. Which prayer has only three words?”

The old man smiled. “Thank you, God.”

Xochipilli laughed again. “Funny, considering there are multiple Gods. Is it true he treats peasant and noble, royal and commoner alike?”

“Very true. The Imperium is partially based on a meritocratic system. There are many that hate it, but it has done us much good.”

“The Gods will approve. It doesn’t matter if you are a royal but die in the woods only the fittest will survive. Is it true that sometimes he travels as a peasant to hospitals, giving ill children toys and presents from his funds?”

“Yes. More often than we’d suspect since the Imperator always sneaks out anonymously to do it.”

“Is it true he welcomes the homeless and lonely to his palace during your holiday of Christmas?”

“Yes. It has led to governors following the Augustus’s goodwill less they be seen as greedy.”

“Is the story about the girl with that mental disease true?” Xochipilli said.

“Oh, the one about the child with cerebral palsy?”

“The one where the girl hated her life because she thought she was a very bad girl, and only bad children deserve the crippling disabilities she had.”

“Yes. I’ve asked the Imperator about that personally, actually. They met once, and the girl got mad at herself that the only reason she was seeing the Imperator was because the Augustus was visiting a mental hospital. The girl’s mother pulled her away since she was cutting herself with a hidden knife, but amazingly, the Imperator waited hours to talk to the girl. And then, when they met, the Imperator asked the girl to pray. Not for herself, but for the Augustus. The girl was astonished. People normally prayed for her. She then figured that since the Imperator must be close to God, and the Imperator likes her, then God must like her too.”

“Clever of the Augustus. To know that the prayers would make the girl think better of herself.”

“Oh, no, that’s not what the Imperator thought,” the old man said. “The Augustus said that anybody who had gone through the girl’s challenges must be very close to God. The Imperator wanted the girl’s intercession.”

“I’d take it he is very religious then?”

“Yes, but the Imperator tries to hide it. The Augustus treats all of the conquered with all of their different religions and cultures as equally as possible.”

“Is it true he writes back to everyone that sends a letter to him?”

“Very. I don’t know where the Imperator finds the time. There is a story where the Augustus couldn’t find the return address on a badly written letter made by a child, so the Imperial Guard were sent around the Imperium to find the sender. They ended up having to travel all the way to Persia.”

“Is it true he has personally written letters of bereavement to all soldiers who die in the line of duty?”

“Yes. The Imperator will spend many long nights writing them for today.”

Xochipilli laughed. “A weakness, actually. The weak don’t deserve compassion. It sounds to me like your Imperator cares too much about that. All of this nonsense about caring for the weak will get him killed. Is it true that your Imperator actually hates war, detests it with every fiber of his being?”

“Yes. It seems paradoxical, doesn’t it? The Imperator hates war, but we have gone to war to conquer the known world. But if you’ve seen the Augustus at every war declaration, you would understand.”

“No, I don’t,” Xochipilli said. He straightened himself to his full height. “Heartwarming stories, old man. But these stories don’t make one great. While cute, men are only immortalized when they achieve great things. I respect your Imperator for conquering your pitiful map of your world. But he is mistaken if he thinks that is what will lead him to heaven.”

“Oh heavens, no. The Imperator doesn’t expect to reach salvation. The Augustus takes the curse of immortality, of being chained to this earth very seriously. She says she bears this curse so that no one else has to.”

Now it was Xochipilli who was very confused. “Immortal? She?”

The old man breathed in quickly, a sharp intake of air that cut through his teeth, as if he regretted letting that slip. But then he relaxed, as if accepting his fate. “Yes, didn’t you know? Our Imperator is immortal. She has lived since 769, the year of our Lord. And she is a woman.”

There was a snicker. And then a laugh. And then a full-blown explosion as Xochipilli clutched his bare, well-toned abdomen. Tears streamed from his eyes as he couldn’t stop laughing.

“A woman that’s immortal who’s considered to be the greatest of all rulers?” Xochipilli said. He was still wheezing for breath. “Ha! Ha ha ha! Immortality? On this Earth? Her heart isn’t worthy of being sacrificed to the Gods. Her womb might be deserving of my seed, though. Old man, I said you would die if you told any lies. I was not joking.”

The Aztec stabbed his ceremonial knife straight into the old man’s stomach. And then, Pope Clement VI’s eyelids fluttered open, revealing pale white pupils. As he dropped to his knees, he didn’t curse or condemn Xochipilli. Instead, he smiled.

As Xochipilli wiped the knife with the former Pope’s choir dress, he shouted and gave the order in Nahuatl for his men to finish up and board the ships. There, he smiled at the thought of the woman he would violate. She must be very beautiful if she seduced all of those men to the top. The thought made his blood boil and tingle. He couldn’t wait to show the Romans that they were weak for letting a woman lead them.

A month later, on top of the Theodosian walls of Constantinople, a woman stabbed Xochipilli in the heart with Joyeuse, a sword forged with meteorite and steel. This moment would be forever immortalized in a painting which still exists to this day, roughly a thousand years later. It now hangs in the bedroom of the Immortal Imperator’s daughter.


Xochipilli, The Prince of Flowers, is the Aztec god of flowers, maize, love, games, beauty, song and dance. (Xochi is from the Nahuatl xochitl or 'flower', while pilli means either Prince or child.) He is the husband of Mayahuel and the twin brother of Xochiquetzal. He is also referred to as Macuilxochitl, which means "five flowers".

In the mid-1800's, a 16th century Aztec statue of Xochipilli was unearthed on the side of the volcano Popocatapetl near Tlamanalco. The statue is of a single figure seated upon a temple-like base. Both the statue and the base upon which it sits are covered in carvings of sacred and psychoactive flowers including mushrooms (Psilocybe aztecorum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), morning glory (Turbina corymbosa), sinicuichi (Heimia salicifolia), possibly cacahuaxochitl (Quararibea funebris), and one unidentified flower. The figure itself sits crosslegged on the base, head tilted up, eyes open, jaw tensed, with his mouth half open. The statue is currently housed in the Museo Nacional de Antropologia of Mexico.

3. Quetzalcoatl – ‘The Feathered Serpent’

Quetzalcoatl statue at the Ciudadela complex in Teotihuacan (Credit: Jami Dwyer / CC).

Tezcatlipoca’s brother Quetzalcoatl was the god of winds and rain, intelligence and self-reflection. He plays a key role in other Mesoamerican cultures such as Teotihuacan and the Maya.

His nagual was a mix of bird and rattlesnake, his name combining the Nahuatl words for quetzal (“the emerald plumed bird”) and coatl (“serpent”).

As the patron of science and learning, Quetzalcoatl invented the calendar and books. He was also identified with the planet Venus.

With his dog-headed companion Xolotl, Quetzalcoatl was said to have descended to the land of death to gather the bones of the ancient dead.

He then infused the bones with his own blood, regenerating mankind.

7 XochipilliThe Aztec God Of Gay Prostitutes

A lot of religions have gods of homosexuality, but the Aztecs got a bit more specific. It wasn&rsquot enough for them to have a god of gay men they needed a god for the gay men who have sex for money. And so Xochipilli came to be.

Xochipilli was more than just the god of gigolos&mdashhe was actually multipurpose. He was also called The Prince of Flowers. &ldquoFlowers,&rdquo though, doesn&rsquot seem to have meant roses or daisies. Instead, it meant flowers that could get you high.

His statues were covered with psychoactive flowers and mushrooms. The statues also showed him with a facial expression that made it clear that he was absolutely blasted out of his mind.

This means that he wasn&rsquot just the god of gay prostitutes&mdashhe was the god of hallucinogens, too.

Xochipilli, an Imagined Aztec Music

Xochipilli, a work for wind quartet and percussion sextet, represents the synthesis and synergy of meticulous research, cultural introspection, archaeological speculation, and musical imagination that characterize much of the music of Mexican composer Carlos Chávez. Written in 1940, the work uses a unique mixture of modern and ancient musical instruments to speculate on the sonority and expressivity of a musical culture long since lost. The piece is named after an important figure in indigenous Mexican culture, the Aztec "Prince of Flowers." In addition to being the god of poetry, dance, and music, Xochipilli was also the god of joy and love and is depicted in ancient pictograms adorned with flowers and holding a barbed stick with which he pricked the hearts of men. As the work's subtitle suggests, it seeks only to "imagine" the kind of music that might have been performed by the worshipers of Xochipilli. None of the music from the period in question actually survives, of course, but many instruments from that era do. Chávez, ever interested in establishing as authentic a foundation as possible for his own creative forays into his native culture, undertook considerable research into these instruments in order to inform his music to the fullest extent. In fact, this work is perhaps his most "historically informed" piece. It calls for a variety of Aztec percussion instruments, including various huehuetls (skin drums), a pair of teponaxtles (double-tongued log drums), two omichicahuaztli (a notched bamboo shaft), and various kinds of shakers in addition, a trombone is used to simulate the sound of a blown conch shell. These instruments, along with the traditional instruments in the ensemble, play figures and patterns whose connection with the past is entirely speculative still, this "Imagined Aztec music" surely provides a hint of the sonority, or at least zeitgeist, of the musical followers of Xochipilli. And perhaps more importantly for Chávez, the work represented the kind of convergence that he saw in his own ancestry and heritage and his efforts as a Mexican composer: a mixture of vibrant native culture ultimately overtaken by and speaking largely through the voice of, but nonetheless adding its own energy to the "European" tradition.

The Pine Cone and Third Eye Symbolism

The name of the pineal gland comes from its pinecone-like shape. It is said that the pinecone was revered by ancient pagan people as the fruit (or seed) of the evergreen - a symbol which is connected to ideas of eternal life. It has also been considered a phallic symbol for its shape and role in creating life. The pinecone is a symbol which can be found in many ancient civilizations and cultures around the world. The following are some possible examples of pinecones appearing in ancient art.

Assyria: Winged Genii holding buckets and cones is a recurring motif in Assyrian iconography. This image is especially popular in palace reliefs. One clear example comes from the Palace of King Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin, present day Khorsabad, Iraq. The carvings date to 713–716 BC and show winged figures which use the pinecones in rituals of either purification or fertilization.

Left: A Winged genie with a pinecone and bucket performing a ritual before a Tree of Life panel. ( Public Domain ) Right: An eagle-headed figure in the Assyrian ‘bucket and cone motif.’ (Geni/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

Egypt: In ancient Egypt, the symbol of the pinecone is found depicted on the Staff of Osiris (from about 1224 BC). This image shows two serpents that intertwine on their way up the staff which is topped with a pinecone. Some researchers link the snakes with the Hindu idea of kundalini – in which the pinecone acts as the pineal gland (or Ajna chakra).

Detail of the Staff of Osiris. ( Mynzah Osiris )

Mexico: The Aztec goddess of agriculture, nourishment, and plenty named Chicomecōātl is often associated with corn. However, some researchers argue that her image can also be found holding pinecones in one hand and an evergreen tree in the other.

Corn or pinecones? Aztec stone sculpture of the goddess Chicomecoatl Ethnological Museum, Berlin, Germany. ( Public Domain )

Greece and Rome, Italy : The god known as Dionysus to the ancient Greeks and Bacchus to the ancient Romans was often show holding a staff covered with ivy leaves topped with a pinecone. This symbolic staff was known as a thyrsus and was carried and used by mystics in their rituals.

A Roman relief showing a dancing maenad holding a thyrsus (12-140 AD). (Ana Belén Cantero Paz/ CC BY 2.0 ) This is a copy after a Greek original sculpted in Athens at the end of the 5th century BC, traditionally attributed to Callimachus .

Later, the Romans built a massive bronze pinecone sculpture ( pigna) that reportedly sat on the top of the Pantheon and served as a fountain. Now, this is thought to be the largest pinecone statue in the world. It can be found today in front of the Vatican.

To enjoy the rest of this article please join us there . When you subscribe, you get immediate and full access to all Premium articles , free eBooks, webinars by expert guests, discounts for online stores, and much more!

Top Image: An 18th century Indian drawing showing the Ajna chakra, Brow Chakra, Shiva's Eye, or third eye. Source: Public Domain


Alicia McDermott holds degrees in Anthropology, Psychology, and International Development Studies and has worked in various fields such as education, anthropology, and tourism. Ever since she was a child Alicia has had a passion for writing and she has written. Read More

Xochipilli Tattoo

Want to know more about Xochipilli Tattoo? You are in the right place. Expand your knowledge of tattoos. Gather all the necessary information, choose the style, design and wizards. Read the reviews. Decide on your desires and start transforming your appearance. Do not deny yourself the joy of a new tattoo! Here you can find everything about Xochipilli Tattoo.

Tatto & Piercing Xochipilli - Home Facebook

    Tatto & Piercing Xochipilli, Ciudad de México. 1,693 likes · 4 talking about this · 153 were here. Xochipilli es un estudio donde se realizan cualquier tipo de perforación y aplicación de tatuajes de. 4.4/5(12)

Xochipilli Tattoo - Home Facebook

    Xochipilli Tattoo, Guadalajara (México) (Guadalajara, Mexico). 712 likes. Arte corporalFollowers: 721

Xochipilli Tattoos, Chicano tattoos, Future tattoos

    Xochipilli – Aztec God of art, games, beauty, dance, flowers and song century statue Museo Nacional de Antropologia – Mexico City. Aztec Statues Aztec Ruins Maya Picture Chicano Drawings Art Nouveau Tattoos Bein México City Ancient Ruins Japan Tattoo. . Leading Tattoo Magazine & Database, Featuring best tattoo Designs & Ideas from around .

Xochipilli in 2019 Aztec art, Aztec tattoo designs .

    Xochipilli. December 2019. Explore Clikeo's photos on Flickr. Clikeo has uploaded 465 photos to Flickr. Aztec Tattoo Designs Ancient Beauty Ancient Art African Sculptures Aztec Art Mesoamerican Mexica Maya Museum. . Tattoo by Andrew Ortega Love this tat Charra with Aztec Eagle - Chicano Art - BrownPride.com Photo Gallery (BP)

Xochipilli - Ancient History Encyclopedia

    Xochipilli or the ‘Prince of Flowers’ was the Mesoamerican god of summer, flowers, pleasure, love, dancing, painting, feasting, creativity and souls. He is a benevolent manifestation of Piltzintecuhtli, the young sun god who was himself a manifestation of Tonatiuh, the supreme sun god of Mesoamerica.The god is closely associated with the corn (maize) god Centéotl and was sometimes .

Xochipilli: Aztec God Of Love, Music, Song And Ecstatic .

    May 19, 2018 · The statue of Xochipilli is 79 cm high and carved in stone. It represents an extraordinary work of art and depicts Xochipilli, the “god of flowers” who is related to a number of pleasurable activities such as dance, song, music, love and feasting. The deity is sitting on a temple-like granite base, about 43 cm high and 60 cm per side.

Xochipilli Etsy

    You searched for: xochipilli! Etsy is the home to thousands of handmade, vintage, and one-of-a-kind products and gifts related to your search. No matter what you’re looking for or where you are in the world, our global marketplace of sellers can help you find unique and affordable options. Let’s get started!

What does Xochipilli mean? - definitions

    Definition of Xochipilli in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of Xochipilli. What does Xochipilli mean? Information and translations of Xochipilli in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on …

Xochipilli- Quetzalcoatl- The Aztec Calendar

    Written by Samael Aun Weor In Museum of Anthropology and History of Mexico City is found Xochipilli seated upon a beautifully carved basalt cube. He has his knees up high and his legs crossed like the cross of Saint Andrew, his hands above his knees with their respective index fingers and thumbs in contact.His sight is towards the infinite.

Xochipilli or the ‘Prince of Flowers’ was the Mesoamerican god of summer, flowers, pleasure, love, dancing, painting, feasting, creativity and souls. In Aztec mythology Xochipilli has two brothers Ixtlilton (the god of health, medicine and dancing) and Macuilxóchitl (the god of games).

When the Spanish reached Mexico, the Aztecs were cultivating double-flowering marigolds and dahlias, showing that by using scientific techniques, flower varieties were being developed by what Phil Clark calls a ‘horticulturally sophisticated people’.

Watch the video: Xochipili