Syria History - History

Syria History - History


Syria's history dates back to the ancient empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, and Persians. A number of conquerors controlled the region, including Babylonians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, the Seleucid empire and Rome. Islam came to the region early on and for a period of 90 years (661-751), Damascus was the center of Islamic rule. The Turks arrived in the late 11th century and were in turn threatened by the Crusaders. But the 12th century's Saladin, succeeded in defeating both Turks and Crusaders. The Mamluk empire followed Saladin and Syria was twice attacked by the Mongols during the Mamluk era. The Mamluks were not defeated until the early 16th century by the Ottomans, who essentially retained control until the early 20th century. The League of Nations placed Syria and Lebanon under the control of France. As a reaction to the French in Syria professing loyalty to the Vichy government, Britain together with Free French forces invaded Syria in 1941, creating a Syrian republic the same year. Complete independence was declared in 1944. For the last fifty-plus years, Syria has been an implacable foe of its Middle East neighbor, Israel. Through various configurations, the government of Syria has spent most of its energies on maintaining either a hot war or an uneasy ceasefire with Israel. In 1967, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel, which remains in Israeli hands though Syria tried (and failed) to recapture the area during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Tensions have persisted between Israel and Syria over Lebanon. Since the extremist Ba'ath party came to power in 1963, Syria has maintained a radical stance on most Middle Eastern affairs including terrorism. Syria's long-time leader Hafez el-Assad died in June 2000, a situation which will doubtless have significant ramifications on the stability of the country and the region.

More History

Here Are the Ancient Sites ISIS Has Damaged and Destroyed

Shocking destruction in the Syrian city of Palmyra is part of the militant group's ongoing campaign against archaeology.

Islamist militants in Iraq and Syria continue their war on the region’s cultural heritage, attacking archaeological sites with bulldozers and explosives.

The so-called Islamic State (ISIS) released a video that shocked the world last month by showing the fiery destruction of the Temple of Baalshamin, one of the best-preserved ruins at the Syrian site of Palmyra. Last weekend, explosions were reported at another Palmyra temple, dedicated to the ancient god Baal a United Nation agency says satellite images show that larger temple has largely been destroyed.

The destruction is part of a propaganda campaign that includes videos of militants rampaging through Iraq's Mosul Museum with pickaxes and sledgehammers, and the dynamiting of centuries-old Christian and Muslim shrines.

ISIS controls large stretches of Syria, along with northern and western Iraq. There's little to stop its militants from plundering and destroying sites under their control in a region known as the cradle of civilization.

The militant group is just one of many factions fighting for control of Syria, where a civil war has left more than 230,000 dead and millions more homeless.

The group claims the destruction of ancient sites is religiously motivated Its militants have targeted well-known ancient sites along with more modern graves and shrines belonging to other Muslim sects, citing idol worship to justify their actions. At the same time, ISIS has used looting as a moneymaking venture to finance military operations.

“It’s both propagandistic and sincere,” says Columbia University historian Christopher Jones, who has chronicled the damage on his blog. “They see themselves as recapitulating the early history of Islam.”

A guide to cultural sites that ISIS has damaged or destroyed so far:

Syria- Brief History

Syria is an ancient land that has played a major role throughout world history. Going back thousands of years, Syria has been ruled by a variety of rulers, including the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Fatimids, the Seljuk Turks, the Zengids, the Ayyubids, the Mameluks, the Ottomans and finally, the French before gaining independence in April 1946. This long and rich history resulted in the creation of a diverse mosaic of faiths and ethnicities in Syria.

The modern-day boundaries of Syria were created by the Sykes-Picot Treaty of 1916, which was negotiated by the British and French governments in anticipation of the eventual defeat of the Ottoman Empire. Despite attempts by Prince Faisal to establish a monarchy in Damascus after winning control of the country in 1918 from the Ottomans in a joint mission with British forces, France imposed its mandate in Syria following the Battle of Maysaloun in 1920. The French authorities subsequently won the approval of the League of Nations. They divided Syria into a number of states brought together under a federal system, which lasted for two decades until the country was reunited prior to independence.

The formation of the Syrian state started to take shape in 1932 when the Syrian Republic was created on the basis of a parliamentary system with authority officially emanating from the country’s legislature. Muhammad Ali Abed became the country’s first president that year followed by Hashim Atassi in 1936. Nevertheless, resistance within Syria against French domination continued particularly following the failure of the French to ratify a 1936 treaty that would have promised eventual independence and the fact that the north-western province of Alexandretta was ceded to Turkey in 1939 following a fabricated referendum. This state of hostility between Syrians and the French mandate authority continued up until the end of the Second World War. By that time, an international agreement was reached whereby France withdrew its troops and Syrian President Shukri Quwatli consequently declared independence on April 17, 1946.

During this time, Syria was considered to have a free market economy with limited government interference. Soon after independence, the first Arab-Israeli war broke out in 1948, in which Syria played a leading role. The poor results of the conflict led to infighting between the government and the army, which manifested itself in the first ever coup d’état in March 1949 led by General Husni Zaim, the Army Chief-of-Staff. Despite taking over the presidency, the Zaim administration would only last for 138 days.

During the short term of Zaim’s government, substantial legal reform was initiated under Assaad Kourani, the Minister of Justice. Inasmuch as Syria was considered a civil law jurisdiction, various codes and other laws that laid down the foundations of the Syrian legal system were enacted during this time. Among these were the Civil Code, the Commercial Code and the Criminal Code. Furthermore, women’s suffrage was granted. The legal regime that was being developed was reinforcing the secular, continental European model, which was influenced by the French legal system.

Not long after assuming power, Husni Zaim was deposed in another coup and the period of switchovers between civilian and military leaderships continued. The next military leader to lead a coup was Adib Shishakli when he took over the powers of the state in 1951. He set about establishing a presidential republic with a redistribution of power from the legislative to the executive branch. The Shishakli administration’s policies were a mixture of attempts at socialist policy through a land reform program that was never completely implemented, and at the same time the promotion of free market principles and lower taxes. It appeared that the government was adopting a pragmatic approach depending on the circumstances it faced, especially since supporters of socialist ideology were on the rise in the country. One of the results during this period was the continued growth of the public sector, which became a hallmark of future governments to come. Splits in the army and popular unrest eventually led to Adib Shishakli’s resignation in 1954.

While civilian rule resumed under the veteran statesmen Hashim Atassi in 1954 and Shukri Quwatli in 1955, the emergence of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel-Nasser along with his socialist and pan-Arab credentials was finding a favourable reception in Syria. Nasser found a number of supporters in Syria among both the political and military elites. As a result, both Syria and Egypt began to seriously consider a union between the two countries, which exhibited itself in February 1958 with the establishment of the United Arab Republic (UAR). President Shukri Quwatli stepped down from his position in favour of Gamal Abdel-Nasser, who took over as President of the UAR.

The era of Nasser was characterized by a push towards greater socialism and away from Syria’s historic free market position. The growing disparities in wealth between the economic and political elite on the one hand and the middle-classes and rural populace on the other helped to spur on a variety of legislative changes. Nationalizations of the commercial, industrial, banking and insurance sectors were carried out while land reform sought to carve up the holdings of wealthy landowners and distribute them to the peasantry. In addition, agrarian reform was carried out to improve the bargaining power of farmers vis-à-vis their landowners and landlords. Eventually, resentment within the political and military establishment towards Nasser’s policies grew, especially since Syria had become a junior partner in the UAR. In September 1961, a military coup in Syria overturned the UAR and restored an independent government in Damascus.

While civilian rule returned to Syria under the old political elite, the administration of President Nazim Qudsi adopted legislation that sought to repeal the socialist measures passed during the Nasser era and attempted to reverse the expropriations that had taken place. But this policy would not prove long-term or successful as within just over a year, the socialist left-leaning Baath Party, which espoused pan-Arabism, would come to power in March 1963 and reinstate a number of laws from the Nasser era. The Baath Party had been building a popular base in Syria since the 1940s by promoting itself to the middle classes and rural populace as an alternative to the traditional urban political elite that favoured free-market policies.

The traditional structures of the state, which included a parliament, were suspended by the Baathists who set up the National Revolutionary Command Council to run the country. This initial period of the Baathists again witnessed various nationalizations, land redistribution measures and public sector growth. Furthermore, a state of emergency was declared and martial law was imposed. Internal rivalries within the Baath Party led to a split in February 1966 when the far-leftist Baathists seized control. In June 1967, Syria and Israel fought the Six-Day War in which Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel, fuelling further divisions among the new political and military elites before Hafez Al-Assad came to power in November 1970 and officially became president in March 1971.

Upon assuming power, President Hafez Al-Assad reintroduced various political structures that had existed previously but whose functions were reconfigured. While state institutions such as a parliament were reestablished, Syria emerged as a presidential republic with power mainly concentrated in the executive branch. While theoretically socialist in nature in keeping with Baathist doctrine, the new government attempted to promote limited private sector activity that favoured the business classes while simultaneously complementing it with the continued expansion of the public sector. The rise in oil prices and foreign aid during the 1970s enabled Syria to finance a massive infrastructure program before a recession set in during the next decade. Moreover, Syria attempted to regain the Golan Heights during the October War of 1973 while a US-sponsored disengagement treaty the following year saw the main city of Quneitra returned to Syrian control.

The 1980s witnessed a period of instability on the political and economic levels as the government faced both domestic and foreign challenges. During this time, Syria continued to build strong ties with the Soviet Union while difficult relations developed with the United States and the Gulf Arab states as a result of divergent policies on the conflict in Lebanon and the Iran-Iraq War. On the economic side, a drop in oil prices combined with Arab aid cuts, a shortage of foreign currency reserves and inefficiency in the public sector led to a crisis, which culminated in 1986. The government responded to this state of affairs by imposing foreign exchange restrictions and import controls. At the same time, governmental policy also shifted towards encouraging private sector activity in order to improve the declining economic situation and increase capital investments.

By the early 1990s, Investment Law 10/1991 was enacted with the goal of stimulating private investments in a range of sectors. This period followed the end of the Cold War and witnessed Syria improving its relations with the United States, especially following Syria’s support of the US-led campaign to evict Iraqi forces from Kuwait and its subsequent participation in the Madrid Peace Conference in 1991 to resolve the longstanding conflict with Israel. However, only in the next decade would Syria witness sweeping changes to its economic structure.

Bashar Al-Assad became president in July 2000 as economic policy drifted more towards private enterprise, particularly as there was a decline in oil reserves that the government could not rely on in the long term to cover its expenses. Yet, the hallmarks of state intervention in the economy continued to a significant degree. This new policy was officially declared as a shift towards a social market economy in 2005 that attempted to reach a compromise between socialism and a market economy. During this period, Syria was gradually opening up to foreign investors and seeking to lure back its large expatriate population abroad with potential business opportunities. A series of legislative initiatives led to the return of private investments in the following sectors: commerce, industry, finance, insurance, real estate, education and others. A new investment law contained in Legislative Decree 8/2007 was also promulgated.

As part of the change in economic policy, many import restrictions were removed and international free trade agreements signed, most notably the Greater Arab Free Trade Agreement between Syria and its Arab neighbours, and one with Turkey. Both have been affected at present due to deteriorations in relations between Syria and those countries. Negotiations were also ongoing with the European Union to conclude an association agreement that would have increased trade between Syria and the European countries but it was never ratified. Syria also gained observer status in the World Trade Organization in May 2010 but its application for membership appears to have stalled.

There were no shortages of foreign policy challenges facing Syria during the 2000s. Not long after President Bashar Al-Assad assumed office, the Palestinian uprising erupted and it was followed by the 9-11 attacks in the United States. The consequences of those events began highlighting a growing divergence in the policy objectives of both Syria and the United States under the Bush Administration before the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Lebanon crisis of 2005 exacerbated the already tense US-Syrian relationship. That state of affairs also affected Syria’s ties with other Western and Arab countries but they initially started to recover after the Obama Administration came to power. However, this new diplomatic honeymoon lasted briefly until 2011. In response, Syria began consolidating its alliances with Iran, Russia and China while expanding its ties with the other BRICS countries.

As unrest gripped Syria starting in March 2011, the economic liberalization process was put on hold and in some cases reversed depending on circumstances brought on by the current conflict. Since the situation in Syria has effectively unfolded into a war now in its fifth year, the future direction of the country remains to be determined once peace has been restored. What is clear is that the events that have taken place in Syria since 2011 will no doubt shape its future for generations to come in ways that no other time periods have over the course of the last century.

Syrian Last Names With Incredible Meanings

Here are some popular Syrian names, which have special meanings.

35. Abadi (Arabic origin), this is the family name of the Abbad tribe and means “eternal”.

36. Ahmad (Arabic origin), this is a very common family name and means “the praised one”.

37. Amin (Arabic origin), this surname means “trustworthy”.

38. Asghar (Arabic origin), this family name means “radiance”.

39. Ayad (Arabic origin), this family name means “the hands with power”.

40. Badawi (Arabic origin), the is the family name of people born in the Bedouin tribe.

41. Bakir (Arabic origin), this surname means “dawn”.

42. Bashar (Arabic origin), the meaning of this name is “bringer of good news”.

43. Bilal (Arabic origin), this surname is also a common first name and it means “flow of water”.

44. Darwish (Multiple origins), the origins of this name cannot be pinpointed as it is found in various cultures (Arab, Persian, Hebrew and others). The meaning of this name is “wandering”.

45. Dawoud (Hebrew origin), the meaning of this Hebrew surname is “beloved friend”.

46. Fadel (Arabic origin), this surname means “virtue”.

47. Faez (Arabic origin), this surname means “victory”.

48. Faheem (Arabic origin), the meaning of this Arabic surname is “intelligent”.

49. Faizan (Arabic origin), this powerful surname means “the ruler”.

50. Farsi (Persian origin), the meaning of this Persian surname is “the Persian”. It is given to people who come from that region, but it can also be found in Syria today.

51. Fasih (Arabic origin), the meaning of this name is “the eloquent one”.

52. Fasil (Arabic origin), this surname means “the unique one”.

53. Fayed (Arabic origin), this surname means “the winner”.

54. Gaddafi (Arabic origin), this last name means “the thrower”.

55. Ghazali (Arabic origin), the meaning of this Arabic surname is “mystic”.

56. Ghazawwi (Arabic origin), this surname is given to people from Ghaza as it means “the one from Ghaza”, yet it can be found in Syria too.

57. Hadid (Arabic origin), this surname means “iron”.

58. Hafeez (Arabic origin), this surname means “the one who protects”.

59. Hakim (Arabic origin), this name translates into “the doctor”. In the past, people who were doctors had this as their surname.

60. Hamdi (Arabic origin), the meaning of this surname is “praiseworthy”.

61. Hariri (Arabic origin), this name means “silk”.

62. Hasnawi (Arabic origin), this family name, now found in Syria, comes originally from families in Algeria.

63. Hatem (Arabic origin), this Arabic surname means “determined”.

64. Hijazi (Arabic origin), the meaning of this last name is “the one from Hejaz”. It is donned by people who come from the Hejaz region.

65. Iqbal (Arabic origin), this surname means “the strong one”.

66. Irfan (Arabic origin), this surname means “the one who is aware”.

67. Ismat (Arabic origin), this common last name means “innocence”.

68. Issawi (Arabic origin), the meaning of this surname is “tender”.

69. Jabal (Arabic origin), this name means “great height”.

70. Jabir (Arabic origin), the meaning of this surname is “the comforter”.

71. Jameel (Arabic origin), this name means “handsome”.

72. Jawahir (Arabic origin), this surname translates into “jewelry”. It’s a very royal last name.

73. Kader (Arabic origin), this surname means “one who is capable”.

74. Laghmani (Arabic origin), the meaning of this last name is “one who is born at night”.

75. Nabih (Arabic origin), the meaning of this surname is “someone who is vigilant”.

76. Nahdi (Arabic origin), this beautiful surname means “a strong tree”.

77. Qadir (Arabic origin), the meaning of this Arabic family name is “powerful”.

78. Rajab (Arabic origin), this is the name of the seventh month in the Islamic calendar. It means “to respect”.

79. Sultan (Arabic origin), this is one of the most powerful surnames on this list and it is popular too! It means “the ruler” and is a title given to Kings and Emperors.

80. Torres (Spanish origin), this is one of the most popular Sephardic surnames all over the world. It is mostly found in Spain, yet, you can also find it in countries like Syria. The meaning of this name is “towers”.

Syria History

Archaeologists have demonstrated that Syria was the center of one of the most ancient civilizations on earth. Around the excavated city of Ebla in northern Syria, discovered in 1975, a great Semitic empire spread from the Red Sea north to Turkey and east to Mesopotamia from 2500 to 2400 B.C. The city of Ebla alone during that time had a population estimated at 260,000. Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be the oldest Semitic language.

Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arameans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Nabataeans, Byzantines, and, in part, Crusaders before finally coming under the control of the Ottoman Turks. Syria is significant in the history of Christianity Paul was converted on the road to Damascus and established the first organized Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys.

Damascus, settled about 2500 B.C., is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It came under Muslim rule in A.D. 636. Immediately thereafter, the city's power and prestige reached its peak, and it became the capital of the Omayyad Empire, which extended from Spain to India from A.D. 661 to A.D. 750, when the Abbasid caliphate was established at Baghdad, Iraq.

Damascus became a provincial capital of the Mameluke Empire around 1260. It was largely destroyed in 1400 by Tamerlane, the Mongol conqueror, who removed many of its craftsmen to Samarkand. Rebuilt, it continued to serve as a capital until 1516. In 1517, it fell under Ottoman rule.

The Ottomans remained for the next 400 years, except for a brief occupation by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt from 1832 to 1840.

In 1920, an independent Arab Kingdom of Syria was established under King Faysal of the Hashemite family, who later became King of Iraq. However, his rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the clash between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces at the battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the League of Nations put Syria under French mandate.

With the fall of France in 1940, Syria came under the control of the Vichy Government until the British and Free French occupied the country in July 1941. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalist groups forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate.

Although rapid economic development followed the declaration of independence of April 17, 1946, Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s was marked by upheaval. A series of military coups, begun in 1949, undermined civilian rule and led to army colonel Adib Shishakli's seizure of power in 1951. After the overthrow of President Shishakli in a 1954 coup, continued political maneuvering supported by competing factions in the military eventually brought Arab nationalist and socialist elements to power.

Syria's political instability during the years after the 1954 coup, the parallelism of Syrian and Egyptian policies, and the appeal of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser's leadership in the wake of the 1956 Suez crisis created support in Syria for union with Egypt. On February 1, 1958, the two countries merged to create the United Arab Republic, and all Syrian political parties ceased overt activities.

The union was not a success, however. Following a military coup on September 28, 1961, Syria seceded, reestablishing itself as the Syrian Arab Republic. Instability characterized the next 18 months, with various coups culminating on March 8, 1963, in the installation by leftist Syrian Army officers of the National Council of the Revolutionary Command (NCRC), a group of military and civilian officials who assumed control of all executive and legislative authority. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Resurrection Party (Ba'ath Party) which had been active in Syria and other Arab countries since the late 1940s. The new cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath members.

The Ba'ath takeover in Syria followed a Ba'ath coup in Iraq the previous month. The new Syrian Government explored the possibility of federation with Egypt and Ba'ath-controlled Iraq. An agreement was concluded in Cairo on April 17, 1963, for a referendum on unity to be held in September 1963. However, serious disagreements among the parties soon developed, and the tripartite federation failed to materialize. Thereafter, the Ba'ath regimes in Syria and Iraq began to work for bilateral unity. These plans foundered in November 1963, when the Ba'ath regime in Iraq was overthrown.

In May 1964, President Amin Hafiz of the NCRC promulgated a provisional constitution providing for a National Council of the Revolution (NCR), an appointed legislature composed of representatives of mass organizations (labor, peasant, and professional unions), a presidential council (in which executive power was vested), and a cabinet.

On February 23, 1966, a group of army officers carried out a successful, intra-party coup, imprisoned President Hafiz, dissolved the cabinet and the NCR, abrogated the provisional constitution, and designated a regionalist, civilian Ba'ath Government. The coup leaders described it as a "rectification" of Ba'ath Party principles.

The defeat of the Syrians and Egyptians in the June 1967 war with Israel weakened the radical socialist regime established by the 1966 coup. Conflict developed between a moderate military wing and a more extremist civilian wing of the Ba'ath party. The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this political disagreement within the ruling Ba'ath leadership. On November 13, 1970, Minister of Defense Hafiz al-Asad effected a bloodless military coup, ousting the civilian party leadership and assuming the role of Prime Minister.

Syria History

In 1990, President Assad ruled out any possibility of legalizing opposition political parties. In Dec. 1991 voters approved a fourth term for Assad, giving him 99.98% of the vote.

In the 1990s, the slowdown in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process was echoed in the lack of progress in Israeli-Syrian relations. Confronted with a steadily strengthening strategic partnership between Israel and Turkey, Syria took steps to construct a countervailing alliance by improving relations with Iraq, strengthening ties with Iran, and collaborating more closely with Saudi Arabia. In Dec. 1999, Israeli-Syrian talks resumed after a nearly four-year hiatus, but they soon broke down over discussions about the Golan Heights.

On June 10, 2000, President Hafez al-Assad died. He had ruled with an iron fist since taking power in a military coup in 1970. His son, Bashar al-Assad, an ophthalmologist by training, succeeded him. He has emulated his father's autocratic rule.

In the summer of 2001, Syria withdrew nearly all of its 25,000 troops from Beirut. Syrian soldiers, however, remained in the Lebanese countryside.


The Syrian Arab Airline is the messenger of Syria to the countries of the world, where the grace of the ascension has begun to be called to its splendor, to be the diamond in the sky. The sun of Syria reflects golden rays in all the corners of the world to say the cradle of civilization came to us. , And to the whole flag transported on wings of a Syrian bird
. . . . Syrian Arab Airlines.

- Syrian Arab was established in autumn 1946 , with two propellers and started to fly between Damascus Aleppo and Der Alzour Kamishli the airline expanded during the fifties to include Beirut, Baghdad, and Jerusalem, then Cairo and Kuwait then Doha , in addition to flights during hajj.

In 1952 the airline was provided with three aircrafts Dakota type DC3 and in 1954 with four aircrafts CC4,and in 1957 four aircrafts DC6 in the name of United Arab Airline.

- In 1963- 1964 two more aircraft were enforced with jet super caravel to expand in the Arabic and international routes to Athens –Munich –Rome-Paris-London towards the west and east Zahran –Sharja-Dubai-Tehran –Nicosia-and stopped all thw old Dakota DC4.

- The institute joins the Arab union aviation since it was established in 1965 then joined in 1967 IATA and used to attend all the meeting and conferences.
- In 1971 two more super caravel were enforced so can expand new routes towards Jeddah ,Abodhabi ,Benghazi, Budapest, Moscow ,in 1947 the institute expanded in opening new routes to Sofia, Copenhagen , Tripoli , Tunis , Algiers , Cassblanca , Sanaa , the airliner did change its name from company to institute in 11/11/1975 .

- In 1975 all DC6 were withdrawn from operating any route, and the whole navy operating with jet planes , then a Boeing 727 were leased from British companies till mid 1976 , three brand new aircrafts were delivered 727 , and two 747.
- In the second period of the seventies started to expand new route towards Bucharest , Istanbul, and Mumbia, Bahrain .
in the eighties the did buy thee more aircrafts TU154 and increased the mentioned flights earlier and new routes to Frankfurt and Riyadh.
In the first part of the nineties three more Boeing 727 wer bought start new routes to Madrid , Stockholm instead of Copenhagen and Khartoum , Muscat and Amsterdam, and increased the frequency of the flights and promotes casual flights during hajj and omra.
With year 2000 and during the period between 2000-2005 new routes also to Brucsels, Vienna, Milan-Barcelona, Manchester, and the Copenhagen route was back in operation.
Some of the stations were closed out because it was non profitable like Prague ,Budapest, Sofia, Muscat.
The Syrian Airlines always used to race towards technology at home obtaining the latest reservation system in 1981 from manual reservation to Gabriel automated reservation system.
And in what's been done during the year 1979-1980 is building the infrastructure for computerized system in and the country.
So that was a turning point for the institute it's development and entering new area in different programs, like the manual search for the lost and found , the system is called ( back track) in 1982 and it followed another system called ( load star) for automated departure , and also for weight and followed by another system in 1985 called ( Bahamas) for managing passengers lost reservation , and timatec for hotel reservation system once more . and its departure system in 1988-1989
Also moved to another new system for lost and found called ( world tracer) in 1989 stared implementing total distribution system for travel agents under the umbrella of Arab union aviation , and started to invest in Syria in august 1994 , also the institute implemented pricing in 1990 and the automated system for printing tickets in June 1992 .
The unique movement of the company was when they bought the huge central computer in 1996 .
In addition to a lot of computerized programs in different area of the ( company) , filling , salaries, internet , intranet , human resources.
The airline expanded horizontally and vertically , it did increase some station according to its demand , so it reaches a number more then 44stations in Asia , Europe, and Africa.
Syrian airlines considered Aleppo the second Syrian window for the world, so it launched a new international , for Syrian and other airlines to fly all destinations since early fifties , where Regular international flights took place to Beirut mosel Amman Kuwait , Alexandria , during 1958-1959 .

A passenger terminal has been built to absorb the period of the currant economic flourish that Syria have reached , and now weekly flights eparting from Aleppo airport is 85 , 24 those flights continue towards Europe .

The airline opened offices all over the country to offer its services to the public.
A center in Daraa was opened in 6/11/1992 and in Homs 6/11/2001 in Hama 8/3/1989 and a branch in Aleppo in 1958 in baron street .
But we did have a small office in Ramsis Hotel since 1948 , currently a new office been built in Baghdad station, another branch in Der Alzour and Kamshli in 1952 .

A new center in Tartous 16/11/2002 instead of the old office since 1986 and Lattakia center 1/1/1980 . Swida center 8/3/1991 , and in 2004 Edleb office was opened .

Syrian Arab Airline Transfer all pilgrims from most cities within Syria to Jeddah , and from most European cities and from North Africa this year 2005 pilgrims were transferred to Madina for first time .

Syrian Arab Airline considers many companies under one institute
Provide ground movement , equipment for all planes for Arabic and foreign airlines working in the country and flights of Syrian airline and in all domestic airport , and for this it has a big navy of the latest equipment for ground aviation service , it serve more than 35 international airline in Damascus , and 14 in Aleppo .

The institute owns a huge navy to service crew , engineers , hosts and all coworkers in the institute .
The airline provides luxury transportation for pilgrims to and from all cities , and transfer tourist groups as needed .
The airline has its own catering facilities built in 1979 , and has been renewed recently , it provides more than a million meal annually , and the catering company is open for investors .

In the martyr Basel Alassad Airport the policy of open sky is in force since 1999 , the airport can accommodate large aircrafts from all over the world to invigorate the tourist and economic movement in Syria , in the year 2005 Kamishli Airport took the same policy of ( open sky ) .

The airline connect the Syrian cities with reqular daily internal flights , it transfer between 900.000 to 1.000.000 passenger on its international flights also it service more than five thousand foreign airline that lands in Syria , and more than three thousand Syrian flights , in the year 2004 more than 1.200.000 passenger .

Syrian Arab Airline has a very good training center , where can perform its necessary training to the staff in different branches , a third training center is underway for hosts and others , three more centers been built through out the cities . In ( Aleppo , Lattakia and Deir Alzour )

In order to develop its service and to be close to the customers
A customer service department in Damascus airport to provide the best service when you arrive and when depart .
A new department to promote tourism been established connected with commercial management , in order to increase tourist groups with the cooperation with the tourist offices in Syria .

Frequent flyer program were implemented by giving them special tickets to encourage them to stay loyal to the company . in 2005 all the needs for air investor certificate been prepared except ground operation department , this been achieved for the first time .

The airline carries on its march by choosing the best staff , two main objectives
To maintain its old logo ( Syrian Airline mean safety ).
Excellent customer service .

The new projects are very ambitious which conclude
Provide the company with latest aircrafts .
Building two centers for the institute management in Damascus city and in the airport to be a significant landmark in Syria .
Building new catering kitchen for the company .
Building new training centers under internathonal standard .
Develop and renew sales outlets in and out the country .
Constant investment in human resources , and condense training programs for the employees to keep up with the latest development to give out the best services .
Since the airline was found in the mid forties form the past century it was a messenger to Syria to the world , and started its journey to rise and rise to be the diamond in the sky , and reflect the Syrian sun a golden ray all over the world , to say froom the cradle of civilization here we come , a new city was born , and to the whole world been carried on Syrian wings ( Syrian Arab Airline ).

Syria, Ancient History of

Situated in the Middle East and bordered by several countries including Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey, Syria was among the oldest inhabited places in the world. Based on the Bible Timeline it can be dated back to 1954 BC. The Dederiyeh Cave, which is located in Syria, contains a wide range of archeological finds including ceramics, tools and human skeletons that prove the existence of humans in this place.

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Key Facts about Ancient Syria

Based on historians, Syria was a thriving trade region, largely because of its several ports located on the Mediterranean. It was also ruled by many Mesopotamian empires that supported its growth and development as a nation. The regions including Syria were once known by the name Eber Nari, which means “across the river.” It was the Mesopotamians who gave this name to the regions, and this included a few other areas including modern-day Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. Together, these nations were called “The Levant.”

In the Books of Nehemiah and Ezra, Eber Nari was often mentioned. There were also accounts of the region in the texts of the Persian and Assyrian kings. As for the modern name of the region of Syria, it was noted by some scholars that this originated from Herodotus, as he had a habit of pertaining to the entirely of Mesopotamia as simple Assyria.

Thus, when the Assyrian Empire reached its end in 612 BC, its western regions were referred to as Assyria. However, it was popularly known as Syria when the Seleucid Empire took over. There were assumptions, though, that the name originated from the Hebrew language as the inhabitants were called Siryons. The people were called this way because of the metal armor worn by the soldiers, which was called “Siryon.”

Early Developments in the Regions of Syria

There were early settlers in the area including Tell Brak. After some excavations made in this region, there were arguments by scholars that early civilization started in the north. However, it was also possible that progress has been simultaneous in both of the areas in Mesopotamia. It was only after Max Mallowan’s excavations at Tell Brak that it confirmed them in this part of the region.

Mari and Ebla were the two most significant cities in Syria during early civilizations. These two cities were known to dress in Sumerian fashion, and they worshiped deities by the Sumerians. Also, there were cuneiform tablet collections that were written in the Sumerian and Akkadian languages. These tablets included information about the day to day life and economy of the early civilization in the region, as well as some personal letters.

As for the excavations conducted in Ebla, it was discovered that the palace was burned once including Nineveh‘s famous library. Fortunately, the fire helped bake the clay tablets, which also preserved these. Hence, these tablets provided an understanding of the life and civilizations in Mesopotamia including Ancient Syria.

Syria History - History

Protests spark turmoil in Syrian cities like Damascus and Deraa over political prisoners turn violent, and Assad’s forces kill many protesters. These actions further enrage those involved. The news of this incident spreads to the rest of the country, and the uproar forces the Assad regime to reconsider their stance. They offer a plan of compromise that includes the release of political prisoners. However, the ill will remains on both sides.

Protests ramp up, and, as a result, more prisoners are taken in by the Assad regime. The retaliatory measures by Syrian forces turn violent and continue to kill civilians. Protests begin to become more organized.

Protests against the actions of the Syrian government turn into protests against Assad specifically, and, in order to vanquish the protests, Assad orders military into the cities of Deraa, Banyas, Homs, and Damascus. These actions cause civilian casualties, which peaks the interest of international organizations, who begin to impose sanctions on the Syrian government.

The Syrian government suffers losses in the city of Jisr al-Shughour from violent protests, making both sides feel the pain of the war. In retaliation, Assad sends more troops to seize the city, causing civilians to flee as refugees to the nearby country of Turkey. Assad proposes peace talks. International organizations begin to investigate Syria’s nuclear weapon capabilities, but find that their weapons have been destroyed.

Assad begins to make changes in his regime in areas that he feels have not properly handled the war, including the Hama province. When these government officials are removed, protests get out of hand, and Assad sends troops into the area to restore peace. The opposition, previously unorganized, begins to unify through a meeting in nearby Istanbul.

The U.N. condemns Syria for their actions. Assad attempts to offer an olive branch to protesters by allowing more political freedom in the government, but protests rage on because of protester’s continued dissatisfaction with the Assad regime. Forces clash in the city of Homs, Deir Azzour, and Sarmin. Opposition forces attack many prominent members of the Assad regime.

Syrian defectors become more prominent as protests become more frequent. Assad responds to the defections by sending troops into Ibleen, where he suspected some officials to be hidden. Homs continues to be a center of conflict as well. Despite police brutality, protestors continue to protest across Syria.

The Syrian National Council is formed and begins to unite opposition forces. The U.N. continues their involvement in the issue, but no proposed plans are implemented because of objections from Russia and China, who continue to support the Assad regime.

More international involvement comes from the Arab League, an organization of nations from the Middle East. They condemn Syria for their anti-humanitarian actions and impose sanctions. The rebel fighters continue their attacks, this time in Damascus, where they target a Syrian military base. Supporters of the Assad regime retaliate by attack foreign embassies.

The Syrian government, in response to outrage from other Arab nations, allows members of the Arab League to enter the country, where they are publically supported by anti-government protesters in Homs, but they never come because of safety concerns. Damascus continues to be the center conflict, where suicide bombers begin to initiate attacks that both sides blame the other for.

The U.N. is in a constant stalemate because of objections from Russia and China. The Syria government begins to attack Homs, where the Free Syrian army has a strong foothold. Their attacks prove successful, for they capture Homs and Baba Amr.

Russia and China halt U.N. resolutions against Syria. Damascus becomes a center of conflict after attacks instigated by the Syrian army. Homs is also an area of intense fighting as the Assad regime attempts to reclaim the key city.

The U.N. finally comes to an agreement with a proposed peace plan by Kofi Annan, which gains the support of China and Russia, but the resolution never reaches a final stage.

Damascus and Homs are the center of major anti-government protests that were squashed by Syrian forces, who have been continually attacking both cities. A proposed ceasefire was not honored by the Syrian army.

The U.N. begins to speak out specifically against the Syria government because of its treatment of its civilian population in the city of Houla. Diplomats in the area are pulled out by various world powers as a retaliatory measure.

Assad ramps up his war efforts and begins to move toward the idea of total war, making the war his only priority as president. Turkey, who has previously been rather neutral, begins to threaten Syria if they come near their country.

Officials from the Assad regime are targeted and killed by the Free Syrian Army. The rebel forces also gain control of the key city of Aleppo, successfully fending off Syrian forces.

The U.N. shows unity by formally asking Bashar al-Assad to resign as president of Syria and demanding peace in the region. The Syrian government becomes more desperate and begins to consider the use of chemical weapons.

The Free Syrian Army ramps up their attempts to reclaim the city of Damascus, where they have been targeting the military establishments.

Syria continues to have unfriendly relations with Turkey, a country that begins to feel the spillover of the Syrian Civil War. Turkey retaliates to an unintentional attack on one of its border cities by capturing a Syrian plane en route from Russia.

The Syrian opposition forces form the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, which allows the opposition to become more coordinated in their attacks. They demand that the international community recognizes them as Syria’s rightful government. Israel begins to get involved in the war, too, by firing from Golan Heights.

Britain, France, Turkey, and Gulf States recognize the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces as Syria’s rightful government as fear grows about Assad’s chemical weapons artillery that is more likely to be used as the Assad regime becomes more desperate.

Syria: A Short History

Ever since the publication of History of Syria including Lebanon and Palestine (1951) the author has entertained the hope of compressing it into a small volume, minus footnotes and other critical apparatus, which would appeal to a wider and more varied audience. It would bear the same relation to the larger volume that the author's The Arabs: A Short History bears to History of the Arabs. But the present heightened interest in Syria and the Syrians and the curiosity aroused about what is happening there, together with its setting and background, called for immediate action which I found myself unable to undertake because of prior commitments. Hence I sought and received the co-operation of my former pupil and colleague, Harry W. Hazard. Dr. Hazard has produced a work worthy of his scholarship and, we trust, adequately satisfying to the needs of the student and the intelligent layman. Three of the maps were newly sketched by him.

The last chapter in the larger volume, dealing with the contemporary scene, has been expanded by the author into four chapters.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was legally published within the United States (or the United Nations Headquarters in New York subject to Section 7 of the United States Headquarters Agreement) before 1964, and copyright was not renewed.

For Class A renewals records (books only) published between 1923 and 1963, check the Stanford University Copyright Renewal Database. For other renewal records of publications between 1922–1950 see the University of Pennsylvania copyright records scans. For all records since 1978, search the U.S. Copyright Office records.

The author died in 1978, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 30 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.