History of Anemone - History

History of Anemone - History



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Anemone

A member of a species of a large genus of the buttercup family.

(ScTug: t. 156; 1. 99'; b. 20'5"; dph. 8'4"; s. 11 k.; Cpl. 30; a. 2 24-pdr. sb., 2 12-pdr. sb.)

The first Anemone-a screw tug built in 1864 at Philadelphiawas purchased by the Navy from S. & J. M. Flannagan on 13 August 1864 at Philadelphia prior to her documentation as a merchantman; named Anemone; fitted out by the Philadelphia Navy Yard for naval service; and commissoned there on 14 September 1864, Acting Master Jonathan Baker in command.

Assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Anemone reported to Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee at Beaufort, N.C., on 20 September 1864 and received orders to join in the cordon of Union ships guarding the western bar off Wilmington. She promptly took station, but soon thereafter suffered a rudder casual ty and was forced to retire to the Norfolk Navy Yard for repairs.

The tug returned to waters off Wilmington early in December and took part in the abortive attack on Fort Fisher on Christmas Eve 1864. She then received orders to Beaufort where she served through the end of the Civil War and into the ensuing summer. On the morning of 20 July, after Quinnebaug had been seriously damaged while leaving Beaufort, Anemone's commanding officer, Acting Ensign A. 0. Kruge, and her executive officer, Mate George W. Briggs, commanded launches which rescued the crew and passengers--homeward-bound troops-from the doomed Ann transport.

Shortly thereafter, Anemone sailed North to serve as a tug at the New York Navy Yard during the partial demobilization of the Union fleet. She was decommissioned there on 28 September 1865 and was sold at t public auction on 25 October 1865. Documented Wicaco on 1 December 1865, the tug served American shipping until 1896.


Anemone

Anemone ( / ə ˈ n ɛ m ə n iː / ) is a genus of flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. Plants of the genus are commonly called windflowers. They are native to the temperate and subtropical regions of all continents except Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica. [1] The genus is closely related to several other genera including Anemonoides, Anemonastrum, Hepatica, and Pulsatilla. Some botanists include these genera within Anemone. [2] [3]

  • AbelemisRaf. ex Britton
  • AnemanthusFourr.
  • FlammaraHill
  • HartianaRaf.
  • Pulsatilloides(DC.) Starod.

Anemone name meaning

The name of this flower comes from the Greek word anemōnē which means ‘the daughter of the wind’. It is a compound of the word ánemos (‘the wind god’) and a feminine suffix ōnē (‘daughter’). The first mention of the flower appears in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. He tells a story about the death of Adonis, – the mortal lover of Aphrodite.

Aphrodite fell in love with a handsome young boy named Adonis. For some time their love was so strong, that Aphrodite even stopped caring about her own beauty. Once, she warned Adonis that her other lover Ares, the god of war can transform into a wild beast. She knew that he was jealous about Adonis and will try to kill him.

Image via ju.ta14

One day during a hunt, Adonis was injured by a wild boar. Aphrodite heard his moans and ran to him. But when she arrived Adonis was already dead. When she saw that she couldn’t help him, she started crying. She cursed fate for taking her lover away from her. While she was holding Adonis in her arms, her tears merged with his blood. Other sources say that she sprinkled Adonis’ blood with sweet nectar. After a while, a tiny and red flower sprouted in the same place. The legend says that anemone flower symbolizes the eternal grief of Aphrodite. It represents Adonis’ life – beautiful, graceful and short-lived.

Anemone also has other names including pasqueflower and windflower. The original name of the windflower refers to the fact that it grows where the wind blows openly. Meanwhile, the term pasqueflower comes from the Old French (pasque meaning easter). Pasque flower is a separate genus and it refers to the easter floral emblems such as Pulsatilla vulgaris and Pulsatilla patens.


Habits

All anemonefish, including clownfish, are hermaphrodites. They are all born male, according to National Geographic. They have the ability to turn themselves female, but once the change is made, they can&rsquot go back to being male. Sometimes the change is made when mating. Two males will become mates and the larger, dominant fish will become the female.

These social fish live in groups that are led by one dominant female, according to the ADW. The second largest fish is the dominant male while all of the other fish in the group are smaller males. If the female dies, the dominant male will become a female to replace her. The largest of the smaller males will then become the dominant male of the group.

Clownfish communicate by making popping and clicking noises, according to a study on the journal PLOS One. Researchers say the chatter helps maintain the rank and file among group members. "Sound could be an interesting strategy for preventing conflict between group members," lead study author Orphal Colleye, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Liège, Belgium, told LiveScience in a 2012 article.

Clownfish are omnivores, which means they eat meat and plants. They typically eat algae, zooplankton, worms and small crustaceans, according to the National Aquarium.

When small, the fish tend to stay within the confines of their anemone host. As they get larger, they will seek out food, though they don't venture much more than a few meters from the anemone, according to the ADW.


Sea Anemone Tree of Life Reveals Giant Species as Impostor

A deep-water creature once thought to be one of the world’s largest sea anemones, with tentacles reaching more than 6.5 feet long, actually belongs to a new order of animals. The finding is part of a new DNA-based study led by the American Museum of Natural History that presents the first tree of life for sea anemones, a group that includes more than 1,200 species. The report, which was published this week in the journal PLOS ONE, reshapes scientists’ understanding of the relationships among these poorly understood animals.

“The discovery of this new order of Cnidaria—a phylum that includes jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and their relatives—is the equivalent to finding the first member of a group like primates or rodents,” said Estefanía Rodríguez, an assistant curator in the Museum’s Division of Invertebrate Zoology and the lead author of the new publication. “The difference is that most people are far more familiar with animals like chimpanzees and rats than they are with life on the ocean floor. But this amazing finding tells us that we have so much more to learn and discover in the ocean.”

Rodríguez, along with an international team of researchers, conducted a four-year study to organize sea anemones in a “natural,” or phylogenetic, way, based on their evolutionary relationships. Sea anemones are stinging polyps that spend most of their time attached to rocks on the sea floor or on coral reefs. Although they vary greatly in size and color, anemones have very few defining structures. As a result, classifying these animals based on morphology alone can be difficult.

“Anemones are very simple animals,” Rodríguez said. “Because of this, they are grouped together by their lack of characters—for example, the absence of a skeleton or the lack of colony-building, like you see in corals. So it wasn’t a huge surprise when we began to look at their molecular data and found that the traditional classifications of anemones were wrong.”

The researchers compared particular sections of DNA of more than 112 species of anemones collected from oceans around the world. Based on genetic data and the organization of their internal structures, the scientists reduced the sub-orders of anemones from four to two.

They also discovered that one of species that they analyzed is not a sea anemone at all. This animal, previously called Boloceroides daphneae, was discovered in 2006 in the deep east Pacific Ocean and labeled as one of the largest sea anemones in existence. But the new study shifts it outside of the tree of life for anemones. Instead, the researchers placed it in a newly created order—a classification equal to Carnivora in mammals or Crocodilia in reptiles—under the sub-class Hexacorallia, which includes stony corals, anemones, and black corals. The new name of the animal, which lives next to hydrothermal vents, is Relicanthus daphneae.

Relicanthus daphneae is a classic example of convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

“Even though this animal looks very much like a sea anemone, it is not one,” Rodríguez said. “Both groups of animals lack the same characters, but our research shows that while the anemones lost those characters over millions of years of evolution, R. daphneae never had them. Putting these animals in the same group would be like classifying worms and snakes together because neither have legs.”

For now, Relicanthus daphneae is the only species in the new order, but researchers hope to change that. “Although we’ve long known about the existence of this giant animal, it’s only in recent years that we’re really starting to understand where it fits into the tree of life,” Rodríguez said. “So imagine what else is still out there to discover.”


Symbiotic Relationships

Some anemones, like their coral cousins, establish symbiotic relationships with green algae. In exchange for providing the algae safe harbor and exposure to sunlight, the anemone receives oxygen and sugar, the bi-products of the algae's photosynthesis.

They form another, more famous symbiotic alliance with clownfish, which are protected by a mucus layer that makes them immune to the anemone's sting. Clownfish live within the anemone’s tentacles, getting protection from predators, and the anemone snacks on the scraps from the clownfish’s meals.


Clownfish Help Their Anemones to Breathe at Night

The partnership between clownfish and sea anemones is one of the most iconic in the animal world. Unlike in Pixar’s film Finding Nemo, clownfish seldom stray far from their anemone. During the day, they dart through the water overhead to catch morsels of food. At night, they snuggle deeply within the stinging tentacles. And the nocturnal half of this routine is still providing us with fresh surprises.

For ages, everyone thought that the two partners were a joint self-preservation society. The anemone’s tentacles provide the clownfish with protection from predators, while the clownfish chase away butterfly fish that would eat the anemone. More recently, Nanette Chadwick from Auburn University in Alabama showed that the fish also fertilise the anemone with their ammonia-rich waste.

Now, Chadwick’s team has found that the fish provide another secret service: They help the anemones breathe at night.

Sea anemones can do very little to control the flow of water across their bodies, and they rely on local currents to bring in oxygen and nutrients. For decades, scientists have suggested that the clownfish could help, but no one has actually tested that idea.

Chadwick and student Joseph Szczebak did so by studying the two-band clownfish and its host, the bubble-tip anemone, both collected from the Red Sea near Aqaba in Jordan. By separating the partners and measuring the oxygen concentrations in the surrounding water, Szczebak and Chadwick showed that, in the dark, they consume around 40 percent more oxygen together than apart. This only happened if they could actually made contact. If they were separated by a mesh barrier, and could see and smell but not touch one another, they used up less oxygen.

To understand why, Szczebak filmed the partners at night with infrared cameras, and saw that the clownfish were far more active than anyone suspected. While other marine biologists had claimed that clownfish stay still through the night, Szczebak saw the opposite—they spent most of their time moving. They would wriggle forcefully to wedge themselves between the anemone’s tentacles, and often made 180 degree turns in the process. And they never behaved like this when anemones were absent.

The fish’s frenetic dance aerates the anemone. Sway though they might, the tentacles aren’t great at moving water back and forth and stagnant zones can build up around them. That limits the movement of prey, nutrients, gases and more, and severely limits the anemone’s ability to grow. But the clownfish actively moves and opens up the tentacles, while encouraging water to flow between them. The fish uses up more oxygen because of the effort it makes and the anemone does so because of its partner’s antics, explaining the duo’s 40 percent hike in oxygen use.

The same dynamics are at work elsewhere on coral reefs. Many fish like gobies and damselfish live in corals at night, and face chokingly low levels of oxygen due to weakly flowing water. Both are known to beat their fins faster than normal to create a refreshing flow.

The fact that clownfishes do the same thing is a new slant to an old story. But there are still chapters waiting to be told. Consider this: Szczebak found that a clownfish is more likely to make its wedging, U-turning movements if it’s downstream of its anemone. Is the host releasing chemicals that spur the fish to start its dance? And what exactly is the clownfish doing? Anemones can expand and contract, and it may be that the fish are just trying to give themselves more room by inflating their hosts. Is aerating the anemone the point, or just a side effect of movements that accomplish some other purpose?


Blaschka glass sea anemones

In the late 19th century, Leopold and Rudolph Blaschka were commissioned by various museums to create a collection of anatomically correct models of marine creatures. As soft-bodied animals quickly lost their colour and shape when collected from the sea, it was impossible to showcase their vivid colour and fanciful shape with a dead specimen. A meticulously made glass model, however, could easily stand in their place and demonstrate the vibrant colour and elaborate detail of these mysterious creatures.

The Blaschkas were in precisely the right place and time to tap into a new niche market. The 19th century was a time of great scientific advancement and the public’s fascination with natural history was acutely on the rise. This is particularly true of the mysteries held by the underwater world as deep sea diving began.

The Blaschkas pioneered many of their techniques and formulas and experimented often with glues, colours and glass. Many of their models were formed with wire skeletons and glass via a process called ‘lampworking’, where glass is heated over a flame and then twisted and pulled into shape with various tools. Other materials used included wax, paper and actual snail shells. While the Blaschkas always maintained that they used simple methods, some of their experimental techniques and formulas have never been able to be reproduced. Unfortunately, some of their recipes for glass, colour, and glues have gone with them to the grave.

These mysterious formulas have confounded conservators as they try to repair and preserve these intricate antiquities. Even simple cleaning can have devastating effects on the glue and colour. Despite these challenges, though, restoration is still possible. From March 2010, the Australian Museum is showcasing its restored Blaschka collection for the first time in nearly 70 years.

Consider the exquisite delicacy of the models and the meticulous nature of this fine artwork. Notice the detail and movement in the tentacles, the vibrancy of the colour, and the intricacies of the glasswork. Explore the disciplines echoed by these tiny marvels – do they illustrate art, chemistry, biology or all of these? While many questions still surround these miniature models, one thing seems certain: they will continue to hold their secrets like they have held the world’s interest for more than a century.


Sea Anemones Are Half-Plant, Half-Animal, Gene Study Finds

The sea anemone is an oddball: half-plant and half-animal, at least when it comes to its genetic code, new research suggests.

The sea creature's genes look more like those of animals, but the regulatory code that determines whether those genes are expressed resembles that in plants, according to a study published Tuesday (March 18) in the journal Genome Research.

What's more, the complicated network of gene interactions found in the simple sea anemone resembles that found in widely divergent, more complex animals.

"Since the sea anemone shows a complex landscape of gene regulatory elements similar to the fruit fly or other model animals, we believe that this principle of complex gene regulation was already present in the common ancestor of human, fly and sea anemone some 600 million years ago," Michaela Schwaiger, a researcher at the University of Vienna, said in a statement. [See Stunning Photos of Glowing Sea Creatures]

A simple plan

The size of an organism's genome doesn't correspond to how simple or complex that creature's body is, so some scientists hypothesized that more complicated links and networks between genes made for more sophisticated body plans.

Schwaiger and her colleagues at the University of Vienna analyzed the genome of the sea anemone, not only identifying genes that code for proteins, but also assessing snippets of code known as promoters and enhancers, which help turn the volume up or down on gene expression.

The team found the sea anemone's simple anatomy hides a complicated network of gene interactions, similar to those found in higher animals such as fruit flies and humans. That belies the notion that more complex gene networks always correlate with more elaborate body plans, and also suggests the evolution of this level of gene regulation happened before sea anemones, fruit flies and humans diverged, about 600 million years ago.

The team also found the sea anemone had a second level of regulation that closely resembles one found in plants. Genes are transcribed or copied by a RNA, which is then used as a recipe to build proteins. But tiny snippets of genetic material called microRNAs, which bind to the RNA copies, can stop the step of protein assembly.

While plants and animals have microRNAs, they look and act very different, so researchers had assumed they arose independently in the two kingdoms. Schwaiger and her colleagues found the microRNAs in the sea anemone have similarities to those found in both plants and animals.

That suggests these microRNAs probably evolved before plants and animals diverged long ago, and provides an evolutionary link between plant and animal microRNA.


How to Grow Anemones

Choose your planting time based on the blooming cycle of your chosen species. Plant spring bloomers in the fall, and fall bloomers in the spring. Different species of anemones have different types of root structures, and the planting method varies a bit from type to type. Normally, anemones are planted from bare rootstocks purchased from online or mail-order retailers.

Some species, such as A. coronaria (often known as poppy anemone) have roots that resemble bulb-like corms. The small corms are planted in groups, like tulips or daffodils. Place them in clusters spaces about 1 inch apart, 2 inches deep. Let nature dictate the spreading of the cluster. With corm-types, leave the foliage in place to replenish the corms until it turns brown

Other species, including A. blanda (sometimes known as Grecian windflower) have tuberous or rhizomatous roots that are planted like dahlia or tuberous iris roots, in small groups 3 to 6 inches deep. It helps to soak the dried tubers in water overnight to soften them before planting.

Whatever the species of Anemone, these plants generally like at least four hours of sun each day and well-drained soil that is relatively moist. Once planted, they are relatively care-free plants. Those types with rhizomatous roots will need to be lifted and divided every three years or so. When foliage turns brown in late fall, cut it away to ground level.


History of Anemone - History

A member of a species of a large genus of the buttercup family.

(ScTug: t. 156 1. 99' b. 20'5" dph. 8'4" s. 11 k. Cpl. 30 a. 2 24-pdr. sb., 2 12-pdr. sb.)

The first Anemone-a screw tug built in 1864 at Philadelphiawas purchased by the Navy from S. & J. M. Flannagan on 13 August 1864 at Philadelphia prior to her documentation as a merchantman named Anemone fitted out by the Philadelphia Navy Yard for naval service and commissoned there on 14 September 1864, Acting Master Jonathan Baker in command.

Assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Anemone reported to Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee at Beaufort, N.C., on 20 September 1864 and received orders to join in the cordon of Union ships guarding the western bar off Wilmington. She promptly took station, but soon thereafter suffered a rudder casual ty and was forced to retire to the Norfolk Navy Yard for repairs.

The tug returned to waters off Wilmington early in December and took part in the abortive attack on Fort Fisher on Christmas Eve 1864. She then received orders to Beaufort where she served through the end of the Civil War and into the ensuing summer. On the morning of 20 July, after Quinnebaug had been seriously damaged while leaving Beaufort, Anemone's commanding officer, Acting Ensign A. 0. Kruge, and her executive officer, Mate George W. Briggs, commanded launches which rescued the crew and passengers--homeward-bound troops-from the doomed Ann transport.

Shortly thereafter, Anemone sailed North to serve as a tug at the New York Navy Yard during the partial demobilization of the Union fleet. She was decommissioned there on 28 September 1865 and was sold at t public auction on 25 October 1865. Documented Wicaco on 1 December 1865, the tug served American shipping until 1896.


Watch the video: Amazing Anemones - AMNH SciCafe