Carp SS-20 - History

Carp SS-20 - History


A fresh water fish inhabiting the waters of Europe Asia, Africa, North and South America.

Carp (SS-20) was renamed F-t (q.v.) 17 November 1911, prior to her commissioning.


(SS-338: dp. 1,526, 1. 311'9". b. 27'3". dr. 15'3"; s. 20 k.
cpl. 66; a. l 5", 10 21" tt.; cl. Gato)

Carp (SS-338) was launched 12 November 1944 by Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn., sponsored by Mrs. W. E. Hess; and commissioned 28 February 1945, Lieutenant Commander J. L. Hunnicutt, USNR, in command.

Carp departed New London 14 April 1945, conducted training at Balboa, and arrived at Pearl Harbor 21 May. On her first and only war patrol (8 June-7 August), Carp cruised off the coast of Honshu, destroying small craft and patrolling for the carriers of the 3d Fleet engaged in air strikes on the mainland. Undergoing refit at Midway when hostilities ended, Carp returned to Seattle 22 September.

Based on San Diego as flagship for Submarine Division 71, Carp operated along the west coast with occasional training cruises to Pearl Harbor. Between 13 February and 15 June 1947 she made a simulated war patrol to the Far East, and in 1948 and l949 Carp made two exploratory cruises to extreme northern waters adding to the knowledge of an increasingly important strategic area for submarine operations.

Converted to a guppy-type submarine in February 1952, which added to her submerged speed and endurance, Carp supported United Nations' forces in the Korean War during her cruise of 22 September 1952 April 1953 to the Far East. Arriving at Pearl Harbor her new home port 16 March 1954, Carp remained on active duty with the fleet from that port through July 1959 During this time she continued to make cruises to the Far East, one of which included a good-will visit to Australia and participation in a Southeast Asia Treaty Organization exercise, and to Alaskan waters. On 1 August 1959 Carp departed Pearl Harbor for her new assignment with the Atlantic Fleet. Arriving at Norfolk, VA., 28 August 1959, the submarine has conducted type exercises and training off the east coast and in the Caribbean through 1963.

Carp received one battle star for her service in World War II. Her single war patrol was designated as "successful."

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The History of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) in North America

By Rob Buffler & Tom Dickson from their book, Fishing for Buffalo

(Used with PermissioN)

People long been singing the praise of carp. In China and Japan, this strong, intelligent fish has been the symbol for notability, honor, and courage for centuries.

In Europe it was a food reserved exclusively for European royalty during the middle ages, and today, it is still prepared meticulously by Cordon Bleu chefs in that continent’s finest restaurants and hotels. In Britain, more anglers pursue carp than any other species. An English “carpman” fishes from 1,000 to 2,000 hours a year, and calls it a good season to hook and land a dozen of the wary fish.

Yet here in the United States, the carp, also known as common carp, German carp Israeli carp, German Bass, bugle mouth, brown bass, hoselips, Is widely ignored. And when noticed at all, it's held in disdain.

Why do most American anglers look down on the fish esteemed throughout the rest of the world? Why do they grimace at the thought of eating a fish served in fancy Parisian hotels, and roll their eyes at the suggestion they pursue a quarry prized by millions of anglers across the Atlantic?

Service history

Assigned to the First Submarine Group, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, F-1 operated in the San Francisco, California area on trials and tests through 11 January 1913, when she joined the Flotilla for training at sea between San Diego, California and San Pedro, California, then in San Diego Harbor.

In late 1912, the boat — which then held the world's record for deep diving to a depth of 283 ft (86 m) — slipped her mooring at Port Watsonville in Monterey Bay, California, and grounded on a nearby beach. While most of the crew of 17 safely evacuated, two men died in the incident. [ 1 ]

From 21 July 1914-14 November 1915, the Flotilla based at Honolulu, Hawaii for development operations in the Hawaiian Islands.

F-1 was in ordinary from 15 March 1916-13 June 1917. When she returned to full commission, she served with the Patrol Force, Pacific, making surface and submerged runs to continue her part in the development of submarine tactics. Her base during this time was San Pedro, California. On 17 December, while maneuvering in exercises off Point Loma, San Diego, California, F-1 and F-3 collided, the former sinking in 10 seconds, her port side torn forward of the engine room. Nineteen of her men were lost, while three others were rescued by the submarines with whom she was operating.

Carp SS-20 - History

Until July 1920, U.S. Navy Submarines did not officially have "SS" series hull numbers. They were, however, referred to by "Submarine Number" (or, more properly, "Submarine Torpedo Boat Number"), with that number corresponding to the "SS" number formally assigned in July 1920, or which would have been assigned if the "boat" had still been on the Navy list. For convenience, all of these submarines are listed below under the appropriate numbers in the "SS" series.

Beginning in the later 1940s, submariness converted or built for several specialized functions received modified designations, including SSA (cargo submarine), SSAG (miscellaneous auxiliary submarine), SSBN (ballistic missile submarine, nuclear powered), SSG (guided missile submarine), SSGN (guided missile submarine, nuclear powered), SSK (antisubmarine submarine), SSN (submarine, nuclear powered), SSO (submarine oiler), SSP (submarine transport), SSR (radar picket submarine), SSRN (radar picket submarine, nuclear powered), AGSS(miscellaneous auxiliary submarine), AOSS (submarine oiler), ASSA (cargo submarine), ASSP (transport, submarine) and IXSS (unclassified, submarine). With a few exceptions, submarines with these expanded designations were numbered in the original SS series. Many of the special-purpose submarines were redesignated after a few years.

Before, during and after World War II, other submarines were given designations that were based on specialized functions within the submarine ("S-") type, but were numbered separately from the SS series and will be treated on other Online Library pages. These included SF (fleet submarine) SM (mine laying submarine) SST (target and training submarine) some SSK (antisubmarine submarine) and a few SSN (submarine, nuclear powered).

This page, and those linked from it, provide the hull numbers of all U.S. Navy submarines numbered in the SS series, with links to those "boats" with photos available in the Online Library. It also lists in chronological sequence the one submarine that did not have a number.

See the list below to locate photographs of individual submarines.

If the submarine you want does not have an active link on this page, contact the Photographic Section concerning other research options.

Left Column -- Unnumbered
Submarines and
Submarines numbered
SS-1 through SS-77:

    Plunger (built under an 1895 contract, but not accepted for service)

A Brief History of Carp Fishing – Why Is It So Popular?

F or centuries, carp, and particularly carp fishing, has enthralled and captivated anglers throughout Europe and Asia. From the supernatural beasts lurking in holiday lakes across France and Thailand, to the mystical enigmas, residing within the mecca of carp fishing that is Redmires. Their wily intelligence and, at times, infuriating elusiveness, drives carp fishermen to consistently return to their favourite waters in search of a new PB. Their ability to grow to great sizes and provide swashbuckling fights makes them an extremely rewarding fish to catch. Carp have often been described as ‘the queen of rivers and lakes’ due to their majestic movement and subtle demeanour.

It is believed that the common carp was first introduced into UK freshwaters during the 12th century. They would traditionally be kept in stew ponds, ready to be eaten by monastic monks up until the 16 th century. It wasn’t until the introduction of the selectively bred ‘Mirror Carp’ from Holland and Germany, in the 18th century, that the popularity of carp in the UK shifted from a food source to a sport.

Thomas Ford, owner of Manor fisheries, was the man who initially imported these carp into the UK for angling purposes. It was at this point that the most popular fishing industry in the UK was born. These fish were big, often over 10lbs, dwarfing the typical 4oz roach and perch which were common catches at the time. Not only this, but they were purposefully hard to catch and so immediately gained a mysterious and mythical reputation. The baton was then passed onto Donald Leany, who went on to import hundreds of thousands of carp into the UK. Some were lost to unsuitable habitat and predation however some went onto stock some of the most famous fisheries in the UK, including Redmires and Frensham.

This trait was selectively bred into them by the fishery owners and allowed the fish to grow to unimaginable sizes, subject to their environmental conditions and access to food.

This mass importation of carp from the continent is the reason for the huge range in shapes and sizes that we see today in the UK carp population as imports from different regions came with different, unique traits. Dutch imports had the ability to sustain bone growth for much longer, this trait was selectively bred into them by the fishery owners and allowed the fish to grow to unimaginable sizes, subject to their environmental conditions and access to food. These Dutch imports are the prime reason behind Redmires producing three record fish in succession and dominating the big carp game for nearly thirty years.

In comparison, fish imported from Italy could reach impressive weights, but were not able to grow as long as the Dutch carp. Somewhat limited by their comparatively short bodies and bone structure, these fish were extremely rotund, often being nearly as deep as they were long. Nowadays however, there is no need for imported carp, as many fisheries are producing beautiful home-grown carp.

A carp caught in Carplantis, Holland

A mirror carp caught at Parco Del Brenta, Italy

Richard Walker is widely regarded as the godfather of carp fishing. He fell in love with carp fishing and immersing himself in the nature that accompanies it during his youth. However, just as Walker did for a whole generation of carp fishermen throughout the 20th century, he himself was influenced into getting those carp fishing juices flowing. It was Denys Watkins-Pitchford aka ‘B.B’, who managed to infect Walker with the life-changing bug for nature and carp.

A young Walker received a fisherman’s bedside book as a gift for Christmas in 1950. The book told tales of record carp and elusive beasts, so shrewd and wily that they could never be caught. Walker wrote to BB, suggesting that he did not in fact find carp all that difficult to catch and that he had developed a few techniques which provided him with a significant advantage. This letter spawned (pardon the pun) a fruitful friendship.

The ideas and techniques devised by Walker were so well formulated that the general approach to carp fishing and the equipment used did not change a great deal for decades.

At this point, Walker had caught more 10lb carp than anyone else (rumoured to be 80+), at a time when most anglers had never even laid eyes on a 10lb carp in the water, let alone land one. Walker and his associates went on to form one of the most influential angling organisations in British history, known as the Carp Catchers Club. This club shared information on baits, tackle, carp habits, times to fish etc.

To say that Walker was a thought leader would be an understatement. His contribution of original ideas to the Carp Catchers Club and the wider carp community had a phenomenal impact and paved the way for the huge amounts of carp literature that exists today, including articles such as this one. The ideas and techniques devised by Walker were so well formulated that the general approach to carp fishing and the equipment used did not change a great deal for decades. Only in the last 10-20 years have the baits and tackle seen a significant change.

The UK and European carp fishing industries have come a long way since then. With the introduction of carp fishing magazines in the 80s through to the hugely influential figures of, initially Danny Fairbrass, when he founded Korda (the biggest carp fishing company in the UK) and then later on with the involvement of Ali Hamidi, who brought carp fishing to mainstream television audiences on Sky Sports, with shows such as Thinking Tackle and Carp Academy.

It is safe to say that carp fishing is no longer a sport just for the older generation. Korda also utilised innovative underwater filming technology which brought anglers a new insight into the ever changing and modernising techniques and approaches being pioneered by fishing professionals. These new media platforms facilitated the rise of some carp anglers to celebrity status whilst also providing significant investment in the sport, leading to advancements and adaptations of various baits, rods, reels and rigs, along with the development of a plethora of other gadgets and gizmos, all designed to give the angler an edge against these tricky old customers. Techniques such as bait boats, hair rigs and spods are like here to Mars compared to the techniques forged by Walker and the Carp Catchers Club.

Ali Hamidi during the filming for his latest show

The world of carp and carp fishing can be a very confusing place. There are so many different techniques and information sources out there, all of which result from the introduction of purpose stocked carp by Thomas Ford as well as the hugely influential Richard Walker who thrust of carp angling into the mainstream. It’s place in the modern era has been cemented by people like Danny Fairbrass, Ali Hamidi and other profession anglers who combine the art of carp fishing with new age media platforms and technology to push the industry further forward. All of this can lead a new carp fisherman to feel rather overwhelmed. Our carp section on BadAngling breaks down this ever-changing world of carp and carp fishing.

Carp: the Australian story

CYPRINUS carpio or as it is more commonly known, the European carp, is one of the world's most common freshwater fish. It is extensively farmed in Europe, Asia and the Middle East for food. Carp were introduced to China, Japan and Italy in ancient times and from Rome spread to Greece and southern Europe. They arrived in central Europe in the 12th century and England in the 14th century.

While a popular angling species in Europe, in Australia the carp is considered a pest by most anglers.
The exact date of the carp's initial introduction to Australia is unclear. Some records claim the species was introduced to waters near Sydney as early as the 1850s. Others claim the first introduction was to Victoria in the 1870s. The earliest documented report was from David Stead who purchased carp from a "bird and animal dealer "in Sydney and introduced them into Prospect Reservoir in 1907 and 1908. They became known as the "Prospect strain".
During the 1940s and 1950s there were reports of carp in the irrigation channels of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area.These were different from the Prospect fish in that they were orange in colour and became known as the "Yanco" strain. In 1961 or 1962, a fish farmer in south-eastern Victoria introduced a carp to his ponds at Boolara.

So why was it that we only witnessed a dramatic increase in the carp's range in the 1970s when they had been present for many years in Australia?

Genetic research has shown the fourtypes of carp the Prospect, Yanco, Koi (Japanese for carp) and Boolarra strains, behave differently. The Boolarra strain was probably imported from Europe where it had been developed specifically for fish farming and only the Boolarra and Koi strains could colonise and rapidly adapt to our environment. And as they say, the rest is history!

Love them or hate them carp are a victim of circumstance. In my opinion it's a shame they are here in Australia turning the clear flowing rivers of my childhood into muddy, soupy streams that sometimes fail to clear over a summer. A lot of kids have grown up with carp in rivers and impoundments and don't have memories of clear flowing waters healthy with native fish.

Somewhat surprisingly, some anglers advocate the release of carp after capture while others have been known to illegally translocate these fish to help their distribution.
In NSW, carp are currently listed as a Class 3 noxious species under the Fisheries Management Act 1994. This permits their sale and possession and the listing recognises the fact that wild carp are a commercially fished species koi carp are an important ornamental fish in NSW.
Currently it is not illegal for recreational fishers to return carp to the water where they were captured, however, Industry and Investment NSW strongly encourages fishers to retain and utilise them. Under the NSW Fisheries Management Act 1994 it is illegal to introduce any live fish into any public waterway without a permit (with the exception of immediate re-release of fish at the site they were captured).

Carping events - making a difference?

Carp Outs, Carp Culls, Carp Kills, Carp Musters etc. - such events are rapidly gaining in popularity. One of the benefits of these popular family attended events is that they introduce kids to fishing. They are also shown that the carp is an undesirable species that should be removed from rivers and lakes in the short term.

Families at a Carp Bash will mostly be armed with a rod and reel and bait such as worms, corn and dough made with secret recopies containing special ingredients such as garlic oil, vanilla essence, curry powder or just plain bread the basic rig would see a hook with a running sinker onto the hook - a variant would be a sinker with a swivel or matchstick about 600mm above the hook.

Do these events achieve much in reducing carp numbers?

In the overall scheme of things probably not, as a female carp can produce between 80,000 and 1,500,000 eggs depending on the size of fish, so if all but a few are missed they can rapidly repopulate a waterway. On the other side of the coin a large female caught and disposed of, theoretically, will have prevented a possible 1,500,000 eggs being spawned into the waterway. To extrapolate these figures for example, a thousand breeding females removed from a waterway has the potential to remove in excess of one billion eggs from that water.

In NSW, Industry & Investment Fisheries Education Officers, Fishcare volunteers and noted angling identities combine to help families at carp catch events. As well as educating and assisting attendees about all facets of carp and native fish species attendees are shown how to set up of the tackle used to catch fish on the day, as well as given knot tying and casting demonstrations.

Many carp based fishing days are now well supported by tackle companies and their associated affiliates - in NSW the Bathurst BCF Carp Blitz is set down for November 6 this year on the Macquarie River and Sofala Carp Challenge for November 20.

Peter Byrom with a solid carp taken on fly gear.

Carp the fighter

While carp are despised by many, they are great fighters on the end of a line. They have proven to be a worthy adversary on bait, lure and fly. My personal carp fishing preference involves sight fishing in shallow waters. A fly rod and a few nymphs or my favorite fly, a bead head woolly bugger, and you're set for a day that will test your rod and leader to the limit. Your backing too will at times see daylight. The carp is an excellent sportfish and because of this has been known to be referred to as the "golden bone"!

Finally, love 'em or hate 'em, carp should be dispatched quickly and humanely. Do not leave caught fish scattered along river banks or shorelines to rot. If you have no use for carp, simply cut them up and return them to the water for the shrimp and yabbies to feed on!

Well known fishing identity and writer Rod Harrison regularly appears at carp fishing events teaching kids casting and fishing skills.

Here Rod puts the finishing touches to a fly-caught "golden bone".

Koi In Common Culture

The koi fish is seen as a symbol of good fortune, luck, and prosperity in Japan, as well as being seen as a symbol of Japanese culture and deeply associated with Japan’s national identity.

In China, the affluent and wealthy have been increasingly purchasing ornamental koi from Japan, with rising popularity in having koi ponds at elite estates and homes.

Another region where fish ponds are popular is Sri Lanka, with many courtyards now featuring ponds with the ornamental koi fish.

Eating carp for Christmas, a widespread tradition in Central and Eastern Europe

The tradition of eating carp for Christmas is particularly alive and well in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. But some families in Hungary, Austria, Germany and Croatia may also be fond of it and indulge in that delicacy at Christmas time.

According to most, this traditions dates back to the Middle Ages. “Fish became popular for Christmas Eve dinner during the 13th century, because Catholics considered fish as a fasting good and Christmas Eve was the last day of the Advent fast”, Slovak resident Jozefina Babicova told Culture Trip. “The history of eating fish on Christmas Eve is entirely due to the fact that Catholics couldn’t eat meat during the fast”. This doesn’t explain, however, why other Catholic countries, in Western Europe for instance, are now enthusiastic meat-eaters for Christmas and although Slovakia and Poland have remained, up until today, strong Catholic nations, the same cannot be said about the Czech Republic, one of the least religious countries in the world.

Others point to more practical reasons: the abundance of carps in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where pond culture of carp is extremely widespread and account for most of both countries’ aquaculture. The greatest rise in fishpond cultivation in the Czech Republic, for instance, came in the 15th and 16th century, mainly in South Bohemia, often referred to as the “lake district” of the country. Even today, carps remain a cheap delicacy and are much more affordable than duck or turkey – and thus more appropriate for a festive meal in large groups.

Talking to Radio Prague, the head of the Trebon Fisheries Josef Malacha highlighted this centuries-old expertise: “We have considerable know-how in breeding carp, handed down from generation to generation over the last 500 years. Our fishponds are an ideal environment for them and we constantly work on improving their quality. So carp is what the Czech consumer wants”.

ISS Historical Timeline

Reagan directs NASA to build the ISS

January 25, 1984

President Ronald Reagan's State of the Union Address directs NASA to build an international space station within the next 10 years.

First ISS Segment Launches

November 20, 1998

The first segment of the ISS launches: a Russian proton rocket named Zarya ("sunrise").

First U.S.-built component launches

December 4, 1998

Unity, the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station launches—the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to assembly of the station.

First Crew to Reside on Station

November 2, 2000

Astronaut Bill Shepherd and cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev become the first crew to reside onboard the station, staying several months.

U.S. Lab Module Added

February 7, 2001

Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory module, becomes part of the station. Destiny continues to be the primary research laboratory for U.S. payloads.

U.S. Lab Module Recognized as Newest U.S. National Laboratory

Congress designates the U.S. portion of the ISS as the nation's newest national laboratory to maximize its use for other U.S. government agencies and for academic and private institutions.

European Lab Joins the ISS

February 7, 2008

The European Space Agency’s Columbus Laboratory becomes part of the station.

Japanese Lab Joins the ISS

March 11, 2008

The first Japanese Kibo laboratory module becomes part of the station.

ISS 10-Year Anniversary

November 2, 2010

The ISS celebrates its 10-year anniversary of continuous human occupation. Since Expedition 1 in the fall of 2000, 202 people had visited the station.

NASA Issues Cooperative Agreement

February 14, 2011

NASA issues a cooperative agreement notice for a management partner.

NASA Selects the ISS National Lab

July 13, 2011

NASA selects the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space to manage the ISS National Lab.

The First ISS National Lab Research Flight

Proteins can be grown as crystals in space with nearly perfect three-dimensional structures useful for the development of new drugs. The ISS National Lab's protein crystal growth (PCG) series of flights began in 2013, allowing researchers to utilize the unique environment of the ISS.

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