English DD- 696 - History

English DD- 696 - History


Robert Henry English, born 16 January 1888 in Warrenton, Gal, was i member of the Naval Academy class of 1911, and early in his naval career became a submariner. In 1917, while commanding 0-4 (SS-65), he won the Navy Cross for his great heroism in rescuing an officer trapped in 0-5 (SS-66) after an explosion. After a series of important assignments, he became commanding officer of Helena (CL-50), and during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 was one of the first to bring his ship into action. On 14 May 1942, he became Commander, Submarines, U.S. Pacific Fleet, and was so serving when killed in an airplane accident in California 21 January 1943. For his exceptionally meritorious service in his last assignment, Rear Admiral English was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Medal.

(DD-696: dp. 2,200; 1. 376'6"; b. 40'; dr. 15'8"; s. 34 k.;
cpl. 336; a. 6 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 dct.; cl. Allen M.

English (DD-696) was launched 27 February 1944 by Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. Kearny, N.J.; sponsored by Ensign Eloise W. English, USNR(W), daughter of Rear Admiral English; and commissioned 4 May 1944, Commander J. T. Smith in command.

English arrived in the Hawaiian Islands 3 September 1944 for final training, and service as plane guard during the qualification of aviators in carrier operations. On 17 December, she sailed from Pearl Harbor for Ulithi, where on 28 December she joined the screen for mighty carrier TF 38. She put to sea 2 days later for air strikes to neutralize Japanese bases on Formosa, Luzon, Okinawa, and the Indo China coast in coordination with the invasion of Lingayen Gulf. English returned to Ulithi to replenish between 26 January 1945 and 8 February, then sailed to Saipan to meet Indianapolis (CA-35) and escort her to a rendezvous with newly designated TF 58. She screened the carriers as they launched the series of strikes accompanying the Iwo Jima operation, hitting Tokyo both before and after the assault, Iwo Jima itself, and Okinawa.

After taking on fuel and stores at Ulithi from 4 March 1945 to 14 March, English sortied with TF 58 for strikes on Kyushu heralding the Okinawa operation. When Franklin (CV-13) was heavily damaged by bombing on 19 March off Kyushu, English screened the carrier's retirement from the action area, then rejoined the screen for strikes on Okinawa and nearby islands in the days preceding the assault. On 1 April, she closed Okinawa to provide fire support for the invading troops, returning to the carrier screen for continued strikes on shore targets and Japanese shipping. She left the task force to bombard Minami Daito Shima on the night of 10 May. Next day English went close alongside Bunker Hill (CV-17), damaged by a suicide plane, to help in fighting fires, and to take off Vice Admiral M. A. Mitscher and his staff, whom she transferred to another carrier.

English put in to San Pedro Bay, P.I., from 1 June 1945 to 1 July for repairs and exercises, then sailed again with TF 38 for the final pounding series of air strikes on the Japanese homeland. She closed the coast of Honshu on 18 July to hunt Japanese shipping in Sagami Wan and to bombard targets on NoJima Saki. In Tokyo Bay from 10 to 19 September, English voyaged to escort occupation shipping from the Marianas, then after 21/2 months of occupation duty cleared Sasebo for the long passage to Boston, where she arrived 26 April 1946.

English operated out of Boston, and later Charleston and New Orleans, for exercises and to train members of the Naval Reserve, cruising along the east coast and in the Caribbean. From 23 April 1949 she was home ported at Norfolk, from which she sailed 6 September for her first tour of duty with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. She returned to Norfolk 26 January 1950 for exercises off the Virginia Capes and in the Caribbean.

Alerted for distant deployment upon the outbreak of the Korean war, English departed Norfolk 6 September 1950 for the Panama Canal, San Diego, Pearl Harbor Midway, and Yokosuka, where she arrived 5 October. She supported the withdrawal from Hungnam, then proceeded with two corvettes of the Royal Thai navy to shell Communist positions at Choderi and Chonjin. On 7 January 1951, one of these, HMTS Prase, grounded in a heavy snowstorm, and after arduous attempts to salvage her, English destroyed the corvette with gunfire.

On 20 January 1951 English began duty as direct firesupport ship for a division of the Korean army, blasting positions at Kanson, Kosong, and Kangnung to support the Korean advance ashore. She served on blockade at Chongjin and Wonsan, where in 20 consecutive days on the firing line she silenced 20 attacks by Communist shore batteries. After a final period of service screening carriers on both coast of Korea, she sailed from Yokosuka 11 May eastbound for Norfolk

From her return to Norfolk 9 June 1951, English resumed local training operations, and in the winter of 1952 joined in cold-weather exercises off Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. On 26 August 1952 she departed for NATO operations in which she visited British ports sailing on to a tour of duty in the Mediterranean from which she returned to Norfolk 5 February 1953. In the fall of 1954 she visited Lisbon, Portugal. On 31 October, while at sea for a major fleet exercise, she was in collision with Wallace L. Lind (DD-703), but though English lost 50 feet of her bow, she suffered no casualties. Skillful seamanship brought her into port under her own power, and she was repaired in time to join in large-scale exercises in the Caribbean early in 1955.

From May to August 1955, English made a good will
cruise to ports of northern Europe, and between 28 July
1956 and 4 December served again in the Mediterranean
Visiting Bahrein in the Persian Gulf. With the cruption of the Suez Crisis, she aided in evacuating American
citizens from the troubled area, and patrolled the eastern
Mediterranean to serve with the 6th Fleet. Returning
to Norfolk in April she spent the remainder of 1959 and
all of 1960 in conducting an intensive program of anti
submarine warfare exercises.

English received four battle stars for World War II service, and four for Korean war service.

USS English (DD-696)

USS English (DD-696) là một tàu khu trục lớp Allen M. Sumner được Hải quân Hoa Kỳ chế tạo trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai. Nó là chiếc tàu chiến duy nhất của Hải quân Mỹ được đặt theo tên Chuẩn đô đốc Robert Henry English (1888-1943), một chuyên gia tàu ngầm từng chỉ huy tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Helena và được tặng thưởng Huân chương Chữ thập Hải quân. Nó đã hoạt động cho đến hết Thế Chiến II, và tiếp tục phục vụ sau đó trong Chiến tranh Triều Tiên và Chiến tranh Việt Nam cho đến khi được chuyển cho Đài Loan năm 1970, và phục vụ như là chiếc ROCS Huei Yang (DD-6) cho đến khi ngừng hoạt động năm 1999 và bị đánh chìm như mục tiêu năm 2003. English được tặng thưởng bốn Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II, và thêm bốn Ngôi sao Chiến trận khác trong Chiến tranh Triều Tiên.

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6 × pháo 5 in (130 mm)/38 caliber (3×2) trên bệ Mk 38 nòng đôi
12 × pháo phòng không Bofors 40 mm (2×4 & 2×2)
11 × pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm
10 × ống phóng ngư lôi Mark 15 21 in (530 mm) (2×5)

Why English Literature?

I was inspired by a senior of mine, Shafeeq Sir, who was an NIT-C graduate himself, who was working and cleared with English Literature as an optional through self-study alone with really good marks. This was in 2015. I was awed at the feat and went home to eventually exchange hundreds of mails with him to develop a good understanding of it.

Finally, the confused-me took the leap of faith and followed my heart, Pursuing English literature, and all of a sudden all those years of voracious reading seemed to make sense despite how unconventional an optional it is. And, I do not regret one bit for that choice I made :)

And I did try.

The following reasons were certainly add-ons to making the choice:

  1. Your aptitude is the most important thing in choosing an optional, since we spend hundreds of hours on it, trying to develop close to a Master’s level of knowledge about the prescribed works. You have to love the process, to create a great product.
  2. I spent some time going through the syllabus (Many of which I had already read when I was younger) and the question papers of almost a decade. I genuinely felt comfortable with the idea that, provided I can recollect what I had read, the questions were really do-able.
  3. Limited nature of the syllabus- It boils down to 14 novels, 5 plays, around 60 poems(many are very small) and some understanding of the history of English literature. For me it took around 3–5 hours of reading a day, across 3-4 months to finish my first hand reading.
  4. My love for the language and the written word. There was never any substitute for this and Reading the books in the syllabus was really the best part of my day for so many months :)

In 2015, once I was certain about the optional, I started reading for the pleasure of it in the beginning and slowly developed a strategy around it, thanks to my mentors :)

Why Did King John Sign the Magna Carta?

King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in June of 1215 by the Barons, who had taken over London and nearly captured the king at Windsor in retaliation for the heavy taxes imposed on them. Even after signing the final version of the document that would become the Magna Carta at Runnymede, King John had no intention of adhering to the agreement, which led to the Baron's War.

The king imposed the exorbitant taxes on the Barons and the English people to pay to Pope Innocent III as recompense for retaliating against the Pope's choice for archbishop of Canterbury and to fund expeditions to attempt to regain the lost territories of Aquitaine, Poitou and Anjou. The Barons did not agree with the ruthless way that the king ruled. In an attempt to bring the king under control, the Barons drew up a list of their demands known as the Articles of the Barons in January of 1215. The Barons then began to fight the king with physical force, capturing London in May and forcing the king to agree to the meeting at Runnymede in June. Once the Magna Carta was signed, the Barons renewed the Oath of Fealty to the king. Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to bishops, sheriffs and other nobles in England.

The History of the U.S.S. Maddox

The USS MADDOX (DD-731) is the third ship of the fleet to bear the name MADDOX. She is named after Captain William Alfred MADDOX, United States Marine Corps.

The first MADDOX (DD-168) was an old Wickes Class "four piper" aunched on the twenty seventh of October 1918. She served with the U.S. Navy until 1941, when she was transfered to the Royal Navy under the "lendlease plan". She was christened H.M.S. GEORGETOWN by the British who named ships acquired by the lendlease plan after towns of the same name in both countries. In 1944 she was agan transfered, this time to the Russian Navy and renamed DOBLISTNI meaning "worthy". On the first of September 1952 she was returned to the Royal Navy.

The second MADDOX (DD-622) was one of the trim 1650 ton LIVERMORE (DD-423) class. She was launced on the fifteenth of February 1942 and served with the Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleets. On the morning of July 1943 she was sunk by a German dive bomber.

The third MADDOX (DD-731), a short hull (DD-696) class was built by Bath Iron Works Corporation. At the launching on 19 March 1944 she was sponsored by Mrs. Ellen Velita Browning Willhoit Gay of Washington D.C., gread grand daughter of Captain William Alfred MADDOX.

This ship had a short but notable record in World War II. While serving with the Third Fleet, she was badly damaged off Okinawa in 1944 by a 500 pound bomb from a Japanese Kamikaze that crashed into the pilot house. Later as part of Destroyer Division Sixty-Two, she participated in the last torpedo attack of the war with ships of the Division sinking four out of the eight ships attacked.

When the Korean War broke out the MADDOX was in the Western Pacific with the Seventh Fleet screening the fast Carrier Task Force Seventy-Seven. She participated in almost every phase of the Korean action.

Some of the action in which the MADDOX participated during the Korean War was the following: Participation in the now-famous evacuation of the Hungnam Beach Head escort of the U.S.S. PERCH (ASSP-313) in the first combat deployment of a submarine troop transport the rescue of crews from two Navy attack bombers and an Air Force jet near Wonsan holding what is believed to be a record for the Korean War MADDOX was target for 720 rounds of major caliber fire from Communist Shore batteries. Once after receiving slight damage from shore batteries, Radio Moscow reported that she had been sunk.

After the Korean Conflict, MADDOX frequently operated as a member of the Seventh Fleet in the Western Pacific area. In June 1963, MADDOX underwent a shipyard overhaul followed by seven weeks of extensive underway training during October and November 1963.

MADDOX was again deployed in the Western Pacific from 13 March 1964 to 2 October 1964. During this time the MADDOX operated with the fast Carrier Task Force Seventh-Seven, and during the seven month deployment she screened five different heavy attack aircraft carriers.

During the early part of August 1964, MADDOX was assigned special patrol duty in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam. On the second of August she earned the distinction of being the first U.S. Warship to be fired upon since the Korean War. While on patrol duty, MADDOX was attacked by several North Vietnamese torpedo patrol boats. She answered the challenge with her five inch and three inch gun battteries sinking one torpedo boat and damaging the other two. She was again attacked on the night of 4 August by an undetermined number of torpedo boats.

[Please follow this link for more in-depth information, photographs and maps related to the Tonkin Gulf Incident' ]

MADDOX was on station in the South China Sea for a cumulative total of 82 days during the summer of 1964. Just prior to her return to the States in October, while screening the U.S.S. Constellation (CVA-64), MADDOX rescued eight survivors, in record time, when their Navy P2V Neptune Patrol Plane crashed into the water in the early hours of 8 September. During this WestPac Cruise Maddox was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation Ribbon, and Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal.

On the tenth of July 1965, after only ten months at home, MADDOX was once again on her way to join Task Force Seventh-Seven. The deployment was short in duration but long in days at sea. While in the Western Pacific MADDOX operated exclusively with Task Group Seventy-Seven Point Three consisting of the U.S.S. Oriskany (CVA-34), U.S.S. MCKEAN (DD-784), U.S.S. HENDERSON (DD-785), and U.S.S. KING (DLG-10). MADDOX spent 126 days at sea out of a total of 154 days deployed. Twice assigned to Gunfire Support duties. MADDOX fired 504 rounds of five inch ammunition at some fifteen different target areas. The targets consisted chiefly of Viet Cong storage, staging and bivouac areas. MADDOX is credited with 48 structures destroyed 23 damaged 2 VC KIA's and 15 VC WIA's. Several secondary explosions reported by aerial spotters indicating that caches of ammunition were destroyed. Her other functions consisted of picket, surveillance and planeguard duties.

MADDOX with three other destroyers departed Subic Bay, P.I. on 30 Nov 1965 to escort U.S.S. ORISKANY "stateside" arriving in Long Beach, Calif., 16 Dec. 1965.

During this deployment MADDOX earned the Viet Nam service medal.

Related Links

For excellent information on ALL three ships bearing the name Maddox
follow this link for the
USS Maddox Organization

A Brief History of DDT

DDT was first synthesized in 1874, but it wasn't until 1939 that Swiss biochemist Paul Hermann Müller discovered its potency as an all-purpose insecticide. For that discovery, Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1948.

Before the introduction of DDT, insect-borne diseases like malaria, typhus, yellow fever, bubonic plague, and others killed untold millions of people worldwide. During World War II, the use of DDT became common among American troops who needed it to control these illnesses, especially in Italy and in tropical regions like the South Pacific.

After World War II, the use of DDT expanded as farmers discovered its effectiveness at controlling agricultural pests, and DDT became the weapon of choice in anti-malaria efforts. However, some insect populations evolved with a resistance to the insecticide.

IN PICTURES: How German women suffered largest mass rape in history by Soviets

Between the months of January and August of 1945, Germany saw the largest incident of mass rape known in history, where an estimated two million German women were raped by the Soviet Red Army soldiers, as written by Walter Zapotoczny Jr. in his book, ‘Beyond Duty: The Reason Some Soldiers Commit Atrocities’.

Between the months of April and May, the German capital Berlin saw more than 100,000 rape cases according to hospital reports, while East Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia saw more than 1.4 million rape cases.

Hospital reports also stated that abortion operations were being carried out daily across all German hospitals.

Natalya Gesse, who was a Soviet war correspondent at the time, said that the Soviets didn’t care about the ages of their victims. “The Russian soldiers were raping every German female from eight to eighty. It was an army of rapists,” she said.

This caused the deaths of no less than 200,000 girls and women due to the spread of diseases, especially that many eyewitnesses recounted victims being raped as much as 70 times in that period.

Red Army soldiers would mass rape German women as a kind of revenge against their enemy: The German army. They felt that it was their earned right to do so as the German army had ‘violated’ their motherland by invading it. In addition to not being in contact with women for long periods causing their animal instinct to be heightened.

“Our fellows were so sex-starved,” a Soviet major told a British journalist at the time, “that they often raped old women of sixty, seventy or even eighty - much to these grandmothers’ surprise, if not downright delight.”

In his book, Zapotoczny said that even female Russian soldiers did not disapprove of the rapes, some finding it amusing.

In 1948, rape cases decreased vastly after Soviet troops were ordered back to their camps in Russia and left residential areas in Germany.

About Doordarshan

Doordarshan – literally, a glimpse of all afar- is the face of and a witness to India’s metamorphosis to a global leader in digital communications.

Interestingly, the illusory cyber paths that crisscross homes and streets and represent the voice a billion-plus Indians today, actually began with a modest experiment in public service telecasting on September 15, 1959. The makeshift studio and its players beamed their voice and visuals through a small transmitter, daring to dream of becoming the prime vehicle of development of a nation that had shrugged off its yoke of slavery just over a decade earlier.

The experiment became a service in 1965, when Doordarshan began beaming signals to reach television sets in living rooms in and around the country’s capital, New Delhi. By 1972, services were extended to Mumbai and Amritsar and then on, to seven other cities by 1975. All this time, it was part of the national broadcaster, All India Radio. On April 1, 1976, it transited to become a separate Department in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, though still serviced by All India Radio, especially for its news.

Since then, the organisation has grown to cover the length and breadth of the country, painstakingly caring for the interest of all linguistic, geographical and cultural groups and promoting social, cultural and educational development of the country though an array of transmitter networks equipped with studios and facilities to produce programmes even in regional languages.

In doing so, the country’s prime television service provider has also become the engine for celebration of its diversity and the iteration of its unity. It has been able to do so because it has no single market to pamper – because it is the harbinger of news and information services to every geographical community, all occupational group and each assemble of interests.

At Doordarshan, engineering blends with creativity to make it a role model as a matrix of genres evolve from a spread of centers, an array of transmissions and hundreds of studios. This fusion of modern digital engineering hardware and the software of a three tier programme service spreads nationally, regionally and even locally.

Over the decades, the results of this melt of engineering and creativity have captivated million who would be glued to television sets to watch anything from news to cricket match telecasts, exhibitions of art, culture and Bollywood to education on the arts and sciences alike, from catering to a vast farming community to catalysing the growth of industry and commerce.

Over the years Doordarshan has grown into a network operating 34 satellite channels besides providing free-to-air DTH service having 104 in its bookings. Indeed, that single studio from its small departmental home in All India Radio has grown into 66 studio centers all over the country, including 17 major studio centers at State capitals and 49 other studio centers located in various cities.

D-Day, the Battle of Normandy

The Battle of Normandy was fought during World War II in the summer of 1944, between the Allied nations and German forces occupying Western Europe. More than 60 years later, the Normandy Invasion, or D-Day, remains the largest seaborne invasion in history, involving nearly three million troops crossing the English Channel from England to Normandy in occupied France. Twelve Allied nations provided fighting units that participated in the invasion, including Australia, Canada, Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia, Greece, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Operation Overlord was the codename for the Allied invasion of northwest Europe. The assault phase, or the establishment of a secure foothold, was known as Operation Neptune. Operation Neptune began on D-Day (June 6, 1944) and ended on June 30, when the Allies had established a firm foothold in Normandy. Operation Overlord also began on D-Day, and continued until Allied forces crossed the River Seine on August 19. The battle began months before the invasion, when Allied bombers began to pound the Normandy coast and farther south, to destroy transportation links, and disrupt the German army's build-up of their military strength. More than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over Normandy in advance of the invasion. Six parachute regiments, with more than 13,000 men, also went ahead to cut railroad lines, blow up bridges, and seize landing fields. Gliders also brough in men, light artillery, jeeps, and small tanks.

There has been some confusion regarding the meaning of the “D” in D-Day. The most likely explanation is offered by the U.S. Army in their published manuals. The Army began to use the codes “H-hour” and “D-Day” during World War I, to indicate the time or date of an operation’s beginning. So the “D” may simply refer to the “day” of invasion. With the invasion of Normandy, General Dwight D. Eisenhower faced a task of magnitude and hazards never before attempted. He would have to move his forces 100 miles across the English Channel and storm a heavily fortified coastline. His enemy was the weapon-and-tank-superior German army commanded by Erwin Rommel, one of the most brilliant generals of the war. Less than 15 percent of the Allied forces coming aboard the ships had ever seen combat. An invading army had not crossed the unpredictable and dangerous English Channel since 1688. Once the massive Allied force set out, there was no turning back. The Allies boasted a 5,000-vessel armada that stretched as far as the eye could see, transporting both men and vehicles across the channel to the French beaches. In addition, the Allies had 4,000 smaller landing craft and more than 11,000 aircraft. By nightfall on June 6, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had made it ashore and secured French coastal villages. Within weeks, supplies were being unloaded at Utah and Omaha beachheads at the rate of more than 20,000 tons per day. By June 11, more than 326,000 troops, 55,000 vehicles, and 105,000 tons of supplies had been landed on the beaches. By June 30, the Allies had established a firm foothold in Normandy. Allied forces crossed the River Seine on August 19. Military intelligence was an important part of the Normandy invasion. British and American cryptographers working in London deciphered coded messages that the German believed to be unbreakable. Messages could quite often be delivered to Eisenhower within two and a half hours of the time the Germans had sent it. In addition, reconnaissance teams took infrared pictures of Omaha Beach while avoiding German patrols. There is no official casualty figure for D-Day. It is estimated that more than 425,000 Allied and German troops were killed, wounded, or went missing during the battle. That figure includes more than 209,000 Allied casualties. In addition to roughly 200,000 German troops killed or wounded, the Allies also captured 200,000 soldiers. Captured Germans were sent to American prisoner-of-war camps at the rate of 30,000 per month, from D-Day until Christmas 1944. Between 15,000 and 20,000 French civilians were killed during the battle. In the end, the invasion of Normandy succeeded in its objective by sheer force of numbers. By July 1944, some one million Allied troops, mostly American, British, and Canadian, were entrenched in Normandy. During the great invasion, the Allies assembled nearly three million men and stored 16 million tons of arms, munitions, and supplies in Britain. The occupation of Normandy was crucial for the Western Allies to bring the war to the western border of Germany. If the Normandy invasion had not occurred, there could conceivably have been a complete possession of northern and western Europe by Soviet forces.

You can also check if the vehicle, part or accessory has a fault that’s been registered with the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA ).

Step 1 : Check the vehicle before you buy it

You'll need the vehicle's registration number, make, model and MOT test number. You also need to see the V5C vehicle registration certificate (log book).

Step 2 : Buy and register the vehicle

Once you've bought the vehicle, you have to register it. How you register it depends on whether it has a V5C registration certificate (log book).

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