Wall slabs of king Urhilina

Wall slabs of king Urhilina

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6 Things You May Not Know About the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Jan C. Scruggs, a wounded Vietnam War vet, studied what is now called post-traumatic stress disorder upon his return to the United States. Within a few years, he began calling for a memorial to help with the healing process for the roughly 3 million Americans who served in the conflict. After watching the movie The Deer Hunter, Scruggs apparently stepped up his activism even further, using $2,800 of his own money to form the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund in 1979.

Many politicians expressed their support, and the U.S. Congress passed legislation reserving three acres in the northwest corner of the National Mall for a future monument. All donations, however, came from the private sector. Bob Hope and other celebrities lent a hand with fundraising, and by 1981 some 275,000 Americans, along with corporations, foundations, veterans groups, civic organizations and labor unions, had given $8.4 million to the project.

How the 10,000-Li Great Wall Came into Being

Qin Shi Huang was not the first one to build the Great Wall. As early as the Zhou Dynasty (1046BC-256BC), many states had already built defensive walls along their borders to prevent attack from other states and northern Huns. But most sections were only 2,000 to 3,000 li (621 to 932 miles) long. Emperor Qin Shi Huang mainly renovated the Northern Wall of Yan State, the Northern Wall of Zhao State, and the Qin State Wall, and built some sections of his own to link them together, forming a magnificent, giant and connected defensive wall. This is the wall known to later generations as the 10,000-li Great Wall.

There is no specific measurement of the length of the Qin Dynasty Great Wall. Based on its name, "10,000-li Great Wall" is 5,000 kilometers long, or 3,107 miles, (1 li= 0.5 kilometer= 0.3107 mile).

The construction of the wall cost many lives and a great deal of money and materials. The builders were civilians, soldiers, and convicted criminals. The wall was made of rammed earth and stones, which were acquired locally. The wall functioned as a strong defense in that it protected people from wars and maintained peace and stability during the Qin Dynasty.

Shear walls are a framed wall designed to resist lateral forces. It is a vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system. It is used to resist wind and earthquake loading on a building. It is typically a wood frame stud walls covered with a structural sheathing material like plywood.

Partition wall is an interior non-load bearing wall to divide the larger space into smaller spaces. The heights of a partition wall depends on the use which may be one storey or part of one storey. These walls are made up of glass, fiber boards or brick masonry.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial

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Vietnam Veterans Memorial, also called The Wall, national monument in Washington, D.C., honouring members of the U.S. armed forces who served and died in the Vietnam War (1955–75). The memorial, located near the western end of the Mall, is a black granite V-shaped wall inscribed with the names of the approximately 58,000 men and women who were killed or missing in action. It was designed by American architect Maya Lin.

As a senior at Yale University, Lin entered a nationwide competition sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, and her design was selected from the more than 1,400 submissions that were received. Lin’s minimal plan was in sharp contrast to the traditional format for a memorial, which usually included figurative heroic sculpture. The design aroused a great deal of controversy, reflecting the lack of resolution of the national conflicts over the war as well as the lack of consensus over what constituted an appropriate memorial at the end of the 20th century. Eventually, a compromise was reached with the commissioning of a traditional statue depicting three servicemen with a flag to stand at the entrance to the memorial. After Lin’s monument was dedicated on November 13, 1982, however, it became a popular and moving tourist attraction.

The Megaliths of Stonehenge

Stonehenge’s sarsens, of which the largest weighs more than 40 tons and rises 24 feet, were likely sourced from quarries 25 miles north of Salisbury Plain and transported with the help of sledges and ropes they may even have already been scattered in the immediate vicinity when the monument’s Neolithic architects first broke ground there. 

The smaller bluestones, on the other hand, have been traced all the way to the Preseli Hills in Wales, some 200 miles away from Stonehenge. How, then, did prehistoric builders without sophisticated tools or engineering haul these boulders, which weigh up to 4 tons, over such a great distance?

According to one longstanding theory, Stonehenge’s builders fashioned sledges and rollers out of tree trunks to lug the bluestones from the Preseli Hills. They then transferred the boulders onto rafts and floated them first along the Welsh coast and then up the River Avon toward Salisbury Plain alternatively, they may have towed each stone with a fleet of vessels. More recent hypotheses have them transporting the bluestones with supersized wicker baskets or a combination of ball bearings, long grooved planks and teams of oxen.

As early as the 1970s, geologists have been adding their voices to the debate over how Stonehenge came into being. Challenging the classic image of industrious Neolithic builders pushing, carting, rolling or hauling the craggy bluestones from faraway Wales, some scientists have suggested that glaciers, not humans, did most of the heavy lifting. 

The globe is dotted with giant rocks known as glacial erratics that were carried over long distances by moving ice floes. Perhaps Stonehenge’s mammoth slabs were snatched from the Preseli Hills by glaciers during one of the Ice Ages and deposited a stone’s throw away𠅊t least comparatively𠅏rom Salisbury Plain. Most archaeologists have remained cool toward the glacial theory, however, wondering how the forces of nature could possibly have delivered the exact number of stones needed to complete the circle.

Soldier Pile And Lagging Walls: Uses, Advantages, and Materials Used

In the foundation building process, it is common to use soldier pile and lagging walls. Soldier Piles have a proven track record as one of the original types of earth retention systems for deep excavations. Soldier Piles have been used in a variety of conditions including slope stabilization, earth retention, and remediation. Builders have found that these systems are not only efficient but also cost effective as well.


During the creation of a soldier pile wall, specific requirements need to be met to ensure strength and efficacy. The solider piles are drilled or driven vertically into the ground. Soldier Piles are generally steel beams or piles, however a variety of soldier piles are used for walls around the country when the project requires an innovative solution. Alternative sections can include precast concrete, micropiles, conventional pipe sections etc. Spacing of the vertical elements, usually between 6 and 10 feet, can occasionally even reach 12 feet apart. Once the piles are set the excavation proceeds in lifts. Lifts are generally around 5′. In difficult to lag soils such as silts or sands, with some cohesive material, the excavation height must be reduced to help prevent the material from moving into the excavation, between the soldier piles. Non cohesive soils are generally not suitable for lagging installation. While the lagging is installed, excavation is completed. Depending on the soils backfill and compaction may be used to fill in the void space located behind the lagging. Surface or contact lagging reduces the void behind the wall. In area where limiting movement is not as critical, backfilling behind the lagging may not be required.

The soldier pile system is designed to limit the horizontal movement of the soil, and structures and utilities that may exist behind the wall to safe practical limits. Horizontal movement is resisted by passive soil resistance acting on the front face of the soldier piles in the case of cantilever walls. Soldier piles can be designed as cantilever systems up to a cut height of roughly 12′. If increased stability is required, or a deeper excavation, then tiebacks can be grouted and drilled into the retained material. Additional lateral reinforcement elements may include steel struts, and or walers, placed between the soldier piles.

Millennium Tower is a 685-ft, 60-story residential skyscraper located in Boston’s Downtown Crossing immediately adjacent to the historic Burnham Building which once housed Filene’s flagship department store. Excavation to accommodate the Millennium Tower’s underground parking levels and mat foundation system extended beyond the footing depths of the adjacent Burnham Building, which was concurrently undergoing extensive interior renovation as part of the overall parcel development. Photo credit: Hayward Baker


As the excavation moves forward in stages, horizontal lagging is used prevent soils from moving into the excavation. Typically, precast concrete or timber is placed behind the flanges, at times contact lagged to the front of the solider piles resulting in an earth retention system. Temporary Beam and Lagging walls are generally installed with wood lagging. Concrete lagging, or even shotcrete lagging is generally only used for permanent walls.

Lagging is important to transfer the horizontal pressure of the soil strata to the soldier piles and prevent soil flow between the soldier piles.

When the soil has stand-up time, then the lagging can be inserted from the top and placed with a downward pull. Other types of soil require the lagging to be installed on the outside of the piles continuously. When slight caving or sloughing happens, then soil or grout should be placed behind the lagging.


Applications for the use of these retaining wall systems range from temporary projects to permanent solutions. In temporary situations, soldier pile and lagging walls can be used to support excavation during the construction phases using affordable materials and short-term solutions. Long-term results can be achieved by changing the materials and installation methods to ensure durability.

Soldier pile and lagging walls can be used in a variety of building plans. Usually, they are required in urban environments to support excavations where benched or sloped designs can’t be used.

Traditionally, the timber lagging design is used based on the experience of the designer. The Goldberg-Zoino chart is a common reference for the Federal Highway Administration. The methods are restricted based on factors such as pile spacing, soil profile, construction grade timber lagging, and depth limits. The recommended timber lagging thickness can be determined for different pile spacing, soil types, and wall heights.

This chart classifies soil in three categories. Then the thickness of the timber lagging is determined from the lagging clear span and two or three depth categories. The chart can only be used for a depth up to 60 feet, and the soil category determination is left to the designer’s judgment. This chart system doesn’t assist with certain lagging materials or varying species or grades of timber lagging.

One theory is that the active earth pressure reaches a minimum between the piles and a maximum at the soldier piles. Another theory suggests that pressure on the lagging is calculated based on half of the active earth pressure. Contrary to experience, both of these methods agree that the pressure on the lagging increases proportionally based on depth without limit.

Hayward Baker crews installing soldier piles and lagging in Denver for a residential multi-family complex. Photo credit: Hayward Baker


As you compare the pros and cons of soldier piles, how do you determine if this retaining wall system is right for your construction project? Keep in mind that these systems are quite diverse. As a result, the plans can be adjusted to achieve the specific objectives of each project. Flexibility is available in the variety of materials for both the beams as well as the lagging. Geometry of the excavation as well as soil conditions will dictate, the size of the retaining walls, depth, and installation techniques. The wall plans must be tailored to match the geological conditions of the construction site.

In most situations, soldier pile and lagging systems are only used for competent soil sites. These methods are not effective for soft clay conditions or areas where the groundwater is above the excavation depth. High water table, weak soils or cohesive soils can make installation of lagging nearly impossible — which may jeopardize the facilities that are to be protected by the Earth Retention System.


A variety of lateral earth pressure diagrams have been developed over the last half century or more. Regardless of the quantity of research conducted there is no replacement for experience by a design professional for the soils at a local level. For example, varying soil conditions, unusual loads, non homogenous soils, urban fills all add to the complexity of determining lateral pressures.

For the rigid earth retention systems, it is assumed that this lateral earth pressure is constant across the wall length. In comparison with soldier pile and lagging systems, the lagging is typically less stiff compared to the steel soldier piles. The lagging will deflect, causing the soil to bridge between the stiffer elements, which causes a lower pressure placed on the lagging. In most situations, a portion of the active earth pressure is used in various pressure distributions.


An alternative option is to use diagrams based on the soil type at the location of the upper and lower ground anchors. This Apparent Earth Pressure Diagram can be constructed for both temporary and long-term loadings. Keep in mind that the calculations need to factor in the length of time since different construction techniques and materials are used for long- term durability.

Not only is the soil type factored into the diagram, but surcharge pressures and water pressures also need to be added to the diagram explicitly. This method is effective to evaluate the total lateral load for the wall.

Accurate Apparent Earth Pressure Diagrams, based on the Terzaghi and Peck methods, affect the recommended lagging thickness based on the grade of construction lumber, estimated pressures, and soil type. Precise calculations can be completed to limit displacements, which is essential to protect buildings and facilities adjacent an excavation. When in doubt, it is best to ensure the calculations are conservative to minimize future issues.


Many advantages are available from this type of retaining wall construction. A few highlighted benefits include:

• Fast construction
• Lower costs compared to other retaining wall systems
• Flexibility of construction materials
• Versatility that allows adjustments to be made on the spot.

This versatility is important to accommodate construction needs as the building plans progress. Also, the simplicity of the soldier pile and lagging wall design is beneficial. Builders don’t need advanced construction techniques or knowledge for simple systems. However complex deep systems in urban environments will require expertise and experience. While many construction professionals tout the benefits of soldier pile and lagging walls, a few disadvantages need to be noted as well. For example, this design plan is often used for temporary construction, so other options should be considered for long-term durability. Additionally, improper back-filling could result in ground losses that cause surface settlements.

As mentioned earlier, this building technique is not ideal in areas with a high-water table. If this method is needed, then the plans should include details to remove the water before construction begins.


The main component of these systems involves piles placed vertically at intervals, with the lagging placed between for soil retention. This lagging can consist of metal decking, rough sawn timber, or precast concrete or sculpted shotcrete. When the excavation exceeds the depth that can be cantilevered, soldier pile and lagging systems can be created using bracing or tie-backs for deflection control and strength.

The H-piles are constructed by vibrating, driving, or drilling a hole. Then, wetsetting is used to hold the pile with a grout column found at the bottom of the excavation. These piles should be placed before excavation begins. Then the lagging is placed as the excavation advances.

Soldier piles date as far back as the 18th century and have been used in major cities around the world: New York, Berlin, London, and more. In fact, the design of the soldier pile method involves steel and timber and is often referred to as the “Berlin wall” method.

An alternative method is to use caissons, concrete piles, or circular pipes. These materials come at a higher cost though, so they aren’t quite as common compared to the steel and timber method. Determining the materials used for each project should be based on budgetary restrictions, soil conditions, construction site factors, and other elements that need to be addressed during excavation and construction.

Load Bearing Pony Walls

Also, like regular walls, best practice is to frame pony walls so that their studs align with the floor joists below them. If the pony wall is one that extends up from a foundation wall, its studs should be laid out to fall below where the floor joists above will be.

The studs in attic knee walls should fall below the rafters. This makes it easier to run wiring or plumbing and creates what’s called a continuous load path. That means each framing member, such as a stud, joist, or rafter, bears directly on a member below it, with the path continuing all the way to a beam or to the foundation.

When a pony wall rests on a foundation or a concrete slab, the bottom plate should be made of pressure-treated lumber to avoid rot. The bottom plates of pony walls that rest on the foundation are required by code to be bolted to the concrete, just like the mudsills that tie the rest of the house framing to the foundation. This is to help prevent the building from shifting in earthquakes or very high winds.

The Remarkable Story of Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Whenever 18-year-old Maya Lin walked through Yale University’s Memorial Rotunda, she couldn’t resist passing her fingers over the marble walls engraved with the names of those alumni who died in service of their country. Throughout her freshman and sophomore years, she watched as stonecutters added to the honor roll by etching the names of those killed in the Vietnam War. “I think it left a lasting impression on me,” Lin wrote, “the sense of the power of a name.” 

Those memories were fresh in the mind of the daughter of Chinese immigrants senior year when, as part of an assignment in her funereal architecture seminar, she designed a walled monument to veterans of the Vietnam War that was etched with the names of those who gave their lives. Encouraged by her professor, the architecture student entered it in the national design competition being held for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial to be built on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. 

Adhering to the competition rules that required the memorial to be apolitical and contain the names of all those confirmed dead and missing in action in the Vietnam War, Lin’s design called for the names of nearly 58,000 American servicemen, listed in chronological order of their loss, to be etched in a V-shaped wall of polished black granite sunken into the ground. 

Veterans search for the names of soldiers etched in granite on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. (Photo: Cherie A Thurlby [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

The competition garnered more than 1,400 submissions, so many that an Air Force hangar was called into service to display all the entries for the judging. Since all submissions were anonymous, the eight-member jury made its selection based solely on the quality of the designs. It ultimately chose entry number 1026, which it found to be 𠇊n eloquent place where the simple meeting of earth, sky and remembered names contains messages for all.” 

Maya Lin&aposs Vietnam Veterans Memorial design submission, entry number 1026. (Photo: Maya Lin [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

Her design only earned a B in her class at Yale, so Lin was shocked when competition officials came to her dormitory room in May 1981 and informed the 21-year-old that she had won the design and the $20,000 first prize. Not only was Lin not a trained architect, she didn’t even have a bachelor’s degree in architecture at the time. 𠇏rom the very beginning I often wondered, if it had not been an anonymous entry 1026 but rather an entry by Maya Lin, would I have been selected?” she later wrote.

Although she designed an apolitical monument, the politics of the Vietnam War could not be avoided. Like the war itself, the monument proved controversial. Veterans groups decried the lack of patriotic or heroic symbols often seen on war memorials and complained that it seemingly honored only the fallen and not the living veterans. Some argued that the memorial should rise from the ground and not sink into the earth as if it was something to be hidden. Businessman H. Ross Perot, who had pledged $160,000 to help run the competition, called it a “trench” and withdrew his support. Vietnam veteran Tom Cathcart was among those objecting to the memorial’s black hue, which he said was “the universal color of shame and sorrow and degradation.” Other critics thought Lin’s V-shaped design was a subliminal anti-war message that imitated the two-finger peace sign flashed by Vietnam War protestors. 

An aerial view of Maya Lin&aposs v-shaped design of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. (Photo: © Maya Lin Studio/The Pace Gallery/Photo by Terry Adams/National Park Service)

“One needs no artistic education to see this memorial design for what it is,” remarked one critic, 𠇊 black scar, in a hole, hidden as if out of shame.” In a letter to President Ronald Reagan, 27 Republican congressmen called it 𠇊 political statement of shame and dishonor.” 

Maya Lin at the dedication ceremony of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in 1982. (Photo: The Washington Post/Getty Images) 

Secretary of the Interior James Watt, who administered the site, sided with the critics and blocked the project until changes were made. Over Lin’s objection, the federal Commission of Fine Arts bowed to political pressure and approved the addition to the memorial of a 50-foot-high flagpole on which to fly the Stars and Stripes and an eight-foot-high statue of three soldiers sculpted by Frederick Hart, who called Lin’s design “nihilistic.” The commission, however, mandated that they not be placed directly adjacent to the wall in order to preserve Lin’s design intent as much as possible. (A statue dedicated to the women who served in the Vietnam War was also added to the site in 1993.) 

After the memorial wall was unveiled on November 13, 1982, however, the controversy quickly subsided. When Lin first visited the proposed location for the memorial, she wrote, “I imagined taking a knife and cutting into the earth, opening it up, an initial violence and pain that in time would heal.” Her memorial proved to be a pilgrimage site for those who served in the war and those who had loved ones who fought in Vietnam. It became a sacred place of healing and reverence as she intended. Not even three years after the memorial opened, the New York Times reported it was “something of a surprise is how quickly America has overcome the divisions caused by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.”

After the initial controversy over Lin&aposs design, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial quickly became a sacred place of healing and reverence as she intended. (Photo: ES James/www.shutterstock.com)

Lin went on to design the Civil Rights Memorial in Montgomery, Alabama, and Yale University’s Women’s Table, which honors the first female students admitted to her alma mater. As the owner of her own New York City architectural studio, she designs a wide variety of structures from houses to museums to chapels. She is still best known, however, for that memorial design that earned her a B at Yale. Lin ultimately schooled her professor, who also entered the national design competition for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and lost to his student.

Wall slabs of king Urhilina - History

Temple Warning Inscription

What did Jesus think when he saw this stone?

An inscription was discovered on a Greek tablet, attached to the Soreg, forbidding Gentiles to pass beyond that point. [Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums]

When king Herod had rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem between 19 and 9 B.C. he enclosed the outer court with colonnades. The large separated area was referred to as the Court of the Gentiles because the "gentiles" (non-Jews from any race or religion) were permitted to enter this great open courtyard of the Temple area. They could walk within in it but they were forbidden to go any further than the outer court. They were excluded from entering into any of the inner courts, and warning signs in Greek and Latin were placed giving strict warning that the penalty for such trespass was death. The Romans permitted the Jewish authorities to carry out the death penalty for this offence, even if the offender were a Roman citizen. The engraved block of limestone was discovered in Jerusalem in 1871. It's dimensions are about 22 inches high by 33 inches long. Each letter was nearly 1 1/2 inches high and originally painted with red ink against the white limestone. Part of another sign was unearthed in 1936. It's current location is in the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul, Turkey. Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey when the stone was found.

Josephus the Jewish historian of the first century A.D. wrote about the warning signs in Greek and Latin that were placed on the barrier wall that separated the court of the gentiles from the other courts in the Temple. Not until 1871 did archaeologists actually discover one written in Greek. Its seven line inscription reads as follows:


The Temple Warning Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms events outlined in Scripture. When Jesus saw this inscription he knew that his own life would be the cost for the gentiles to go past this barrier.

Ephesians 2:13-14 "But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us"

Matthew 23:13 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut off the kingdom of heaven from people for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in."

Isaiah 56:7 "These I will bring to my holy mountain and give them joy in my house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations."

Mark 11:17-18 "And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves. And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine."

Warning Inscription - Warning Inscription. Warning to Trespassers In the Temple. The Court of the
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Timeline of Significant Archaeological Expeditions and Discoveries - 1871 - The Jerusalem Temple Warning Inscription Stone Was Discovered by Ganneau.

Herod's Temple - Archaeology - The Western (Wailing) Wall is all that remains of the Jerusalem Temple where . B.C. and was inscribed with a letter addressed to Eliashib and mentions "the . Josephus the Jewish historian wrote about the warning signs that were on the .

Overview - Court of the Women - Jerusalem Temple - If you were to approach the Temple in Jerusalem in the first century A.D. you .
distances (the Soreg) with inscriptions in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, warning all .

Soreg Inscription - Soreg Inscription. warning_inscription2.gif. Greek tablet, attached to the Soreg, forbidding Gentiles to pass beyond that point. Israel Department of Antiquities .

First Century Jerusalem - Royal Porticoes - A portion of the temple which according to Josephus (B. J. 5:5, section 1 Ant. 20:
9, section 7) remained . Josephus the Jewish historian wrote about the warning
signs that were on the barrier that . Its seven line inscription read as follows: .

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